International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches <p>International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches (IJANSER) publishes regular research papers, reviews, letters, and communications covering all aspects of engineering and natural sciences. Our aim is to publish novel / improved methods/approaches of these field to benefit the community, open to everyone in need of them. There is no restriction on the length of the papers or colors used. The method/approach must be presented in detail so that the results can be reproduced.</p> en-US (IJANSER) (Technical Support Contact) Tue, 30 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Qualitative Data Analysis in the Age of Artificial General Intelligence <p>Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is a rapidly developing field in the domain of artificial intelligence. AGI systems aim to replicate human-like intelligence and adaptability by possessing the capacity to perform a variety of intellectual tasks that are commonly associated with human beings. As opposed to narrow or weak AI systems, which are designed to perform specific tasks or solve particular problems, AGI seeks to generate machines that can reason, learn, and solve problems with the same level of competence and flexibility as humans. The multimodal nature of data makes it possible to obtain high-quality solutions to problems of analyzing corrupted or visually attacked images, provided that additional, nonvisual information is available. Additionally, the trend in artificial intelligence towards models with billions of parameters is due to the growth of data modality, leading to significantly higher complexity of models. The paper discusses the field of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) and its potential to replicate human-like intelligence and adaptability. AGI systems aim to perform a variety of intellectual tasks that are commonly associated with human beings. Overall, the paper provides insights into the current state and future prospects of AGI research, highlighting both the potential and challenges of this rapidly developing field.</p> Mustafa Serkan Abdüsselam Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Control of Three-Phase Dimmer using Xilinx System Generator <p>Dimmers are alternative converters used to make dimmers for some devices running on the network, as well as in many industrial processes, in this work, the PWM control was presented for a three-phase dimmer associated with an asynchronous machine, first the Matlab/Simulink software was used and then the control was carried out using the Xilinx System Generator tool, the results obtained are comparable for the two implementation software have shown the operation of the dimmer as a starter for the asynchronous machine.</p> Chafa Mohamed , Messaoudi Kamel , Louze Lamri Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 17 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Bitkisel Atık Yağın Bir Termoelektrik Modülde Pasif Soğutucu Olarak Kullanılabilirliğin Deneysel İncelenmesi <p>Çevreye kontrolsüz olarak bırakılan her atık başta insan sağlığı olmak üzere tüm canlılara zarar vermektedir. Özellikle su kirliliğine neden olan atıklardan bir tanesi de bitkisel atık yağdır. Bitkisel atık yağ, biyolojik ve/veya kimyasal bir takım işlemlerden sonra tekrar kullanılabilmektedir. Ancak fiziksel olarak basit bir süzme işleminin dışında herhangi bir işleme tabi tutulmadan doğrudan tekrar kullanımına rastlanmamaktadır. Termoelektrik jeneratör (TEJ) güneş enerjisi gibi bir ısı kaynağı ile elektrik üretebilen elektronik bir parçadır. TEJ aynı zamanda sessiz ve güvenli olmaları nedeniyle de tercih edilebilmektedir. TEJ’in iki yüzeyi arasında meydana getirilen sıcaklık farkı ile elektrik üretimi gerçekleşmektedir. Çeşitli soğutma teknikleri ile söz konusu sıcaklık farkının arttırılması ile üretilen elektrik artmaktadır. Bundan dolayı uygulanan soğutma teknikleri TEJ için önemlidir. Bu çalışmada güneş enerjili ısı borusu ile ısıtması sağlanan bir TEJ için pasif soğutma uygulanmıştır. Pasif soğutucu olarak genel geri kazanım yöntemlerinden farklı şekilde sadece fiziksel bir süzme işlemine tabi tutulan bitkisel atık yağ kullanılmıştır. Güneş simülasyonu ile yapılan deneylerde 75 dakika boyunca pasif soğutucunun etkisi incelenmiştir. Referans olarak kabul edilen duruma göre soğutucu akışkan olarak kullanılan bitkisel atık yağ ile iki yüzey arasındaki sıcaklık farkının yaklaşık %5 arttığı görülmüştür. Açık gerilim miktarı karşılaştırıldığında referans ile 0,452V üretim sağlanırken bitkisel atık yağ kullanımı ile 0,476V üretim sağlanmıştır.</p> Engin Özbaş, Yıldıray Yeşilyurt Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Tue, 18 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Physical and Chemical Properties of Organic Waste Reinforced Polyester Composites <p>Organic wastes constitute an important part of environmental pollution. Disposal of these wastes can be achieved either by using recycling methods or as reinforcement material. In this study, research has been carried out on the use of organic wastes in composite materials. For example, the effects of organic fillers on the physical and chemical properties of polyester composites have been investigated. Organic wastes (biomass) are prepared as fillers after drying and grinding. Especially, biomass samples with a fibrous structure improve the mechanical properties of composites. The use of such organic wastes in polyester composites is preferred for obtaining both economical and low-density materials. However, such fillers should be used in optimum proportions in the composite. Because the use of these wastes at a high rate negatively affects both the surface morphology and the pore structure of polyester composites. Besides, the evaluation of these wastes in the production of polyester composites reduces the carbon footprint. Such fillers interact physically in the polyester composite. If no chemical modification is made, it does not react with polyester components and does not make a chemical bond. According to the evaluated results, it reduces the density and hardness of the polyester composite. Also, it decreases the thermal conductivity coefficient and thermal stability, albeit slightly.</p> Mukaddes Karataş, Ercan Aydoğmuş Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 22 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Use of Inorganic Wastes as Fillers in Production of Polyester Composites and Evaluation of Properties of Obtained Composite <p>The use of industrial factory wastes as a filler in polymer composite materials is becoming more and more common. In this way, these wastes that cause environmental pollution are eliminated and new composite materials are developed. Polymer composites with low cost and high thermal stability are preferred in many sectors. In this research, some physical and chemical properties of inorganic waste reinforced polyester composites have been evaluated. The use of industrial inorganic wastes as fillers in polyester composites develops some thermophysical properties of composites. In particular, such industrial wastes are dried before being used in the composite, the particle size is reduced, and it is ensured to have a homogeneous structure. This type of waste, which is used as filler, is used in the polyester composite in optimum proportions. The use of high inorganic fillers in polyester both weakens the mechanical strength of the composites and negatively affects the matrix structure. Besides, inorganic waste reinforcement raises the surface hardness of polyester composites. Such fillers are improved both the thermal stability and non-flammability of the polyester composite. High-density inorganic fillers are used to obtain a high-density and economical polyester composite. Low-density inorganic industrial wastes also reduce the density of composites. However, the reinforcement of inorganic fillers into polyester at a high rate adversely affects both the surface morphology and the workability of the produced composites.</p> Mukaddes Karataş, Ercan Aydoğmuş Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 22 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Monitoring of the Physico-Chemical Quality of a Frying Oil and its Valorization as Biofuel (Biodiesel) <p>The production of biofuels such as biodiesel has attracted considerable attention as a cleaner source of renewable energy, which can greatly contribute to reducing our dependence on fossil fuels.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this study, we were interested in the production of a biofuel based on non-food used frying oil, and followed by a physico-chemical evaluation, the results obtained showed the thermo-oxidative alteration of this oil. , confirmed by the evolution of the physico-chemical indices during frying.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; At the end, this used oil is recovered as fuel (biodiesel). The production of biodiesel is obtained by the transesterification reaction, with a conversion rate of 85%. The physico-chemical properties determined are very interesting and close to those of commercial diesel.</p> Damba Nadhir, Djaber Abdelkrim Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 22 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Denim Ürünlerde Permanganatsız ve Taşsız Ekolojik Kar Yıkama Proses Optimizasyonu ve Atık Su Üzerine Etkilerinin İncelenmesi <p>Dünyanın en eski kumaş çeşitlerinden biri olan denim kumaşlardan yapılan giyim eşyaları, yıllardır her kesime ve her yaşa hitap etmektedir. Denim ürünlerin bu kadar tercih edilmesi, tekstil sektöründeki önemini arttırmaktadır. Denim kumaşa efsanevi rengini veren indigo boyarmaddesinin, yıkandıkça farklı efekt alabilme özelliği mevcuttur. Denim yıkama, çok fazla girdisi olan bir prosestir. Bu nedenle farklı yıkama prosesleri, renk efekti üzerine etkilidir. Denim ürünlerin endüstriyel yıkama prosesleri, kuru ve yaş işlemler olmak üzere iki gruba ayrılmaktadır. Kuru işlemler; zımpara, bıyık, hasar, kılçık ve lazer operasyonlarıdır. Yaş işlemler reçine sprey, permanganat sprey, pigment sprey, haşıl sökme, taş yıkama, enzim yıkama, ağartma, tint, overdye, yumuşatma ve diğer özel işlemlerdir. Denim ürünlerin endüstriyel yıkama proseslerinde yaş işlemlerden biri olan potasyum permanganat uygulaması, denim ürünlerin kar yıkama efekti eldesinde bölgesel olarak ağartma için kullanılmaktadır. İndigo boyarmaddesinin aşındırılmasını kolaylaştırmak, ürünlerin ham görünüşünü devam ettirmek amaçlarıyla da taş yıkama işlemi uygulanmaktadır. Yapılan çalışmada, kimyasalların farklı oranlarda kullanımı ile daha sürdürülebilir bir yöntem olan permanganatsız ve taşsız ekolojik kar yıkama işlemi yapılmış; elde edilen ürünlerin fiziksel özellikleri (kopma mukavemeti, yırtılma mukavemeti, renk değişimleri test edilmiş ve yıkama işleminin denim kumaşın performans özelliklerine etkisi incelenmiştir. Ayrıca, kar yıkama prosesi ve permanganatsız-taşsız ekolojik kar yıkama işleminin atık su yüklerine etkileri, karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiştir.</p> Ceylin Alperen, Filiz Aslan, Nazlı Cinperi Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 24 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Mikrodalga Kurutma Sisteminin Denim Ürünler Üzerindeki Avantajları <p>Denim ürünlerin kurutma proseslerinde hem tamburlu kurutma hem de konveyörlü kurutma makinaları kullanılmaktadır. Konvansiyonel kurutma işlemlerinde, doğalgaz yakılarak ısı enerjisine dönüştürülmekte; kuru havanın ısıtılması ve kurutma makinası içerisinde devir daimî yapılarak ürünlerdeki suyun konveksiyon yoluyla taşınması sağlanmaktadır. Ürünün sıcaklıkla ilk buluştuğu dış yüzey, ısınarak kurumaya başlamakta; iletimle geçen ısı ile iç kısımlar daha sonra kurumaktadır. İç kısmın kuruması sağlanıncaya dek dış kısım, kuruyup sertleşmeye başlamaktadır. Standart kurutmanın artan doğal gaz tüketim maliyetleri, uzun kurutma süreleri, ürün tuşelerini sertleştirmesi, mukavemet kayıplarına neden olması gibi sorunları; üreticileri, alternatif kurutma sistemleri arayışına itmektedir. Son zamanlarda mikrodalga sistemlerinin farklı elyaf içerikli ürünleri kurutmada kullanıldığı bilinmektedir. Mikrodalga kurutma yönteminde, ürün içerisindeki su molekülleri (dış ve iç kısım), aldıkları mikrodalga enerjisinden dolayı homojen olarak ısınmakta ve yüzeye ulaşarak üründen uzaklaşmaktadır. Bu projede; farklı elyaf içerikli denim ürünlerin mikrodalga ve standart kurutma prosesleri, ürün özelliklerine etkileri ve enerji maliyetleri bakımından karşılaştırılmaktadır. Standart kurutma süreleri, 10-30 dakika aralığında iken mikrodalga yönteminde bu süre 5 dakika civarına düşmektedir. Enerji maliyetleri karşılaştırıldığında, mikrodalga kurutma sisteminde doğalgaz tüketimi olmaması ve daha kısa sürede kurutma sağlaması sayesinde mikrodalga sisteminin, konvansiyonel kurutma sistemlerine göre çok daha avantajlı olduğu görülmüştür. Bunun yanında, mikrodalga yöntemi ile kurutulan ürünler, sertleşmediği için ekstra yumuşatma ihtiyacı da ortadan kalkmaktadır. Ayrıca, mikrodalga kurutma yapılan ürünlerde kopma ve yırtılma testlerinde, standart kurutma yapılan ürünlere benzer değerler elde edilmiştir.</p> Filiz Aslan, Ceylin Alperen, Nazlı Cinperi Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 24 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 KIDNEY STONE DETECTION AND CLASSIFICATION BASED ON DEEP LEARNING APPROACH <p>Kidney stones are the most common disease, resulting in so many deaths. Early kidney stone detection is essential for minimizing death rates. Early detection and treatment are crucial in the fight against kidney stones. Applying machine learning techniques reduces the workload on physicians while reducing risk and improving diagnostic accuracy. We proposed detection methods in this work that can recognize kidney stones in endoscopy images. For the identification and classification of kidney stones, we suggested five 3D-CNN models. The first three models are used to detect kidney stones; each model has an eight-layer convolutional neural network (CNN-8), while the final two models use a six-layer convolutional neural network (CNN-6) to classify kidney stones. A novel dataset of 1000 images has been collected from various hospitals in Ethiopia. A training set of 0.8 and a testing set of 0.2 were formed from the dataset. The accuracy scores for the 3D-CNN models were 0.985. The novel models produced encouraging outcomes. We think it can address the issues we have had.</p> Musa Genemo Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 24 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Nesnelerin İnterneti (IoT) ve Akıllı Şebekeler: IoT Cihazları Akıllı Şebekeler İçin Kullanımı <p>Bu çalışma ile IoT cihazlarının akıllı şebekelerde nasıl kullanılabileceği konusunda detaylı bir inceleme yapılmıştır. Nesnelerin interneti ( IoT ) ve akıllı şebekelerin ne olduğu üzerinde durulmuş, popülaritesinin bu kadar artıyor olmasının dünyada ki yeri ve önemi belirtilmiştir. Bu kadar hızla büyümesinin arkasında yatan ve hayatımızın bir parçası haline gelmesinde etkili olan sebeplere değinilmiş olup bu akıllı şebekelerin IoT ile senkronize edilişi, nasıl çalıştığı, IoT’nin akıllı şebekelerdeki yeri ve kullanım alanlarına değinilmiştir. Akıllı şebekelerdeki nesnelere örnekler ve bu IoT bileşenleri ile beraber kullanılan senaryolar açıklanmıştır. IoT cihazlarının akıllı şebekeler için önemi ve gelecekte artışının beklenmesi açıklanmıştır. Ayrıca, IoT cihazlarının akıllı şebekeler için sağladığı avantajlar ve gelecek potansiyel etkileri de ele alınmıştır. Sonuç olarak IoT cihazlarının, akıllı sayaçlar, su ve enerji</p> Edip Taşkesen, Rüzgar Üren, Selcan Üren Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 24 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Assessment of Adhesion and Moisture Susceptibility of Wood Ashes modified Asphalt <p>Large quantities of wood ash are produced across the world and are often disposed of in landfills or open dumps, leading to land constraint and environmental problems. Although introducing wood by-products into asphalt helps enhance performance and reduce the aforementioned issues, research has been done to investigate the feasibility of using wood ashes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the use of wood ashes affects the performance of asphalt binder and mixes. Asphalt binder and mixes containing 1, 3, and 5 percent by content of mechanically treated wood ashes were prepared. Tests, such as the bitumen bond strength (BBS) and rolling bottle test (RBT), were used to evaluate the rheological and mechanical characteristics of the modified binders and mixes. The findings revealed that a higher concentration wood ashes significantly improved the modified materials adhesion and moisture resistance.</p> Hafiz Ammar Zahid, Adeel Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Tue, 25 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Wastewater Treatment Using Active Microorganisms and Evaluation of Results <p>In this study, samples are taken from the facility where the wastewater is located, and tests and analyzes are made with an active microorganism (EM). EM Technology means technology using Active Microorganisms. EM is not composed of a single microorganism, but a mixture of various groups of microorganisms. It has a positive and healthy effect on people, animals, and nature. EM is effective in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For this reason, it would be beneficial to apply it at all stages of treatment in conventional wastewater treatment systems, except for the biological reactor. When used in EM-activated wastewater, various compounds are formed that may be beneficial for wastewater (enzymes with high hydrolytic activity and some antioxidant substances). These compounds together with EM microorganisms provide high-capacity purification of wastewater. As a result of analyses using EM, it is seen that the desired values are achieved. Heavy metal determination is made in Çankırı wastewater and water treated with EM using an ICP-OES device at a lower detection limit (LOD) value of the device at ppm level. As a result of treatment with EM, it has been determined that a high concentration of strontium fell to the lower detection limit. This result shows that EM has an effective role in removing heavy metals. It has been seen that the use of EM in wastewater is extremely beneficial in terms of eliminating bad odors, increasing the sedimentation rate of organic matter, and reducing chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and suspended solids amount (SSM). Besides, ionization is suppressed by the anti-oxidation effect. When EM is used, the operating cost will be lower as O<sub>2</sub> consumption can be reduced. Since the water will still contain EM microorganisms after being treated, it is thought that wherever it is discharged from the wastewater plant to nature, a great improvement will be observed in terms of vegetation and the environment.</p> Zehra Gülten Yalçın, Mustafa Dağ, Ercan Aydoğmuş Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Tue, 25 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Reducing Maintenance Cost of Concrete Structure Jetty, Piping & Fuel Tank using Mambo3 (Material Admixture Bamboo Fiber with Honeycomb Configuration MOR 3) at Fuel Terminal Tanjung Gerem <p>PT Pertamina Patra Niaga West Java Region is an investment implementation function based on the budget written in RKAP of each period. The investments carried out are spread in each work location at Jakarta, Banten and West Java. Fuel Terminal Tanjung Gerem is one of the Main Transit Fuel Terminals in the Pertamina Patra Niaga – West Java Region. Located near seafront made Fuel Terminal Tanjung Gerem have high corrotion rate more than 0,05 mm/year. Based on the pareto diagram analysis, the main cause for the high operating cost budget year 2021 of Fuel Terminal Tanjung Gerem was the High Maintenance Cost of Concrete Structure of Jetty, Fuel Tank and Piping due to high corrotion rate. Maintenance cost especially for retrofit activity usually use common <em>fiber reinforced polymer</em>. The weakness of <em>common fiber reinforced polymer</em> cannot strengthen the structural strength of existing facilities. &nbsp;To overcome this problem, <em>Mamboo3</em> <em>(Material Admixture Bamboo Fiber with Honeycomb Configuration MOR 3) </em>is determined as alternative solution of Common Fiber Reinforced Polymer. &nbsp;By applying Mambo3, the Quality of Structure (Concrete and Metal) after retrofit have Tensile strength min 564 Mpa and yield strength min 734 Mpa (better than quality of new facilities). In addition lifetime of existing facilities increased to 8 years and reducing maintenance cost 30,2% (USD 51,77 / m<sup>2</sup>).</p> <p>This innovation has been endorsed by an external party, PT Surveyor Indonesia, PT. Sucofindo and Institut Teknologi Bandung. Replication has been carried out for the Fuel Terminal PT. Pertamina Patra Niaga – West Java Region and Central Java Region.</p> Much Arif Amrulloh, Iqbal Dias Prima, Digby Febri Ardyansah Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Tue, 25 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Porous Silicon Fabry-Perot Sensor Fabrication <p>Porous silicon structures are widely used in gas sensor applications. The reason for this is that the gas holding capacity of the porous structure is quite high. In this study, mesoporous structures were obtained. It has been proven by studies that mesoporous structures are superior to other pore structures in gas retention and gas detection. In addition, fabry-perot structures were obtained by impact etching. SEM images and XPS results of fabry-perot porous structures were obtained.</p> Elif Akarsu, Tevhit Karacalı Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Güneş Enerjisinin Kullanıldığı Termoelektrik Jeneratörde Soğutucu Olarak Isı Transfer Sıvısı Kullanımının İncelenmesi <p>Termoelektrik jeneratör (TEJ) elektrik üretimi yapılabilen yarı iletken malzeme teknolojisine sahip bir cihazdır.&nbsp; TEJ tarafından üretilen elektrik yüzeyler arası sıcaklık farkı ile ilişkilidir. Sıcaklık farkı arttıkça TEJ ile üretilen elektriksel gerilim miktarı da artmaktadır. Bundan dolayı yüzeyler arası sıcaklık farkını arttırmaya yönelik pek çok çalışma bulunmaktadır. Yapılan çalışmaların bir kısmı soğuk yüzeyin soğutulmasına yöneliktir. Yüzey soğutması için aktif ve pasif şeklinde iki yöntem kullanılabilir. Aktif soğutmada enerji sarfiyatı olurken, pasif soğutmada herhangi bir enerji sarfiyatı olmamaktadır. Bu çalışmada TEJ’in ısıtılması işlemi için yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarından güneş enerjisi, soğutulması işlemi için de pasif soğutma kullanılmıştır. Güneş enerjisi termosifon tip ısı borusu ile TEJ’e aktarılırken pasif soğutucuda soğutucu akışkan olarak ısı transfer sıvısı kullanılmıştır. Referans pasif soğutucu olarak sadece alüminyum kanatçıklı parça kullanılırken soğutucu akışkanlı için ek bir depo kullanılmıştır. Deneyler laboratuvar şartlarında güneş simülasyonu ile yapılmıştır. Hem referans durum hem de soğutucu akışkan olarak ısı transfer sıvısı kullanılan deneyler 80 dakika ile sınırlandırılmıştır. Deneyler sonunda TEJ’in iki yüzeyi arasındaki sıcaklık farkı referans durumda 12,7<sup>o</sup>C’de kalırken, ısı transfer sıvısının kullanıldığı pasif soğutma ile sıcaklık farkı 13,4<sup>o</sup>C’ye ulaşmıştır. Bunun sonucu olarak TEJ’de referans soğutma ile üretilen açık gerilim miktarı 0,463V iken soğutucu akışkan olarak ısı transfer sıvısının kullanılması ile açık gerilim miktarı yaklaşık %6 artarak 0,492V olmuştur.</p> Engin Özbaş, Alim Yasin Aydın Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 29 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Termoelektrik Jeneratör İçin Pasif Soğutucuda Akışkan Olarak Trafo Yağı Kullanımının Deneysel İncelenmesi <p>Ülkelerin önemli hedeflerinden birisi de enerji ihtiyaçlarını karşılayabilmek ve dışa bağımlılıklarını en aza indirebilmektir. Bu durumda kendi fosil enerji kaynakları yetersiz olan ülkeler yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarından faydalanma yoluna gitmektedir. Yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarından birisi de güneş enerjisidir. Farklı yöntemler kullanılarak güneş enerjisinden elektrik enerjisi üretilebilir. Bu yöntemlerin arasında termoelektrik jeneratör (TEJ) de bulunmaktadır. TEJ tamamen sessiz ve hareketli bir parçası olmayan bir yapıya sahiptir. Yarı iletken malzemeden üretilen TEJ’in iki yüzeyi bulunmaktadır. Bir yüzeyine uygulanan ısı ile iki yüzey arasında meydana getirilen sıcaklık farkı ile elektriksel doğrusal gerilim meydan gelmektedir. TEJ tarafından üretilen gerilim miktarını artırmak için yüzeyler arası sıcaklık farkının arttırılması gerekmektedir. Bunun için de genellikle ısıtma uygulanmayan diğer yüzeyde soğutma işlemi uygulanır. Aktif ya da pasif olarak soğutma işlemi gerçekleştirilebilir. Bu çalışmada ısı kaynağı olarak güneş enerjisinin kullanıldığı ısı borulu bir tasarım yapılarak imal edilmiştir. Aynı zamanda bir pasif soğutucu tasarlanarak soğutucu akışkan olarak trafo yağı kullanımının referans duruma etkisi incelenmiştir. Kapalı bir ortamda güneş simülasyonu ile gerçekleştirilen deneylerde sistem 70 dakika boyunca test edilmiştir. Deneyler sonunda elde edilen verilen sonucu soğutucu akışkan olarak kullanılan trafo yağı ile üretilen açık gerilim miktarının %3 arttığı görülmüştür. TEJ’in yüzeyleri arasındaki sıcaklık farkı da trafo yağı kullanımı ile artarak 12,1<sup>o</sup>C’den 12,6<sup>o</sup>C’ye ulaşmıştır.</p> Engin Özbaş, Furkan Ay Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 29 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Moving towards Reliable and Fault-Tolerant Smart Grid Systems <p>Smart Grid is significantly being initiated in all fields due to their extensive use of IT, monitoring, protection, and automation control. Safety, integrity,&nbsp; privacy and dependability of data with long-term sustainability using green sources of energy. Ensuring perfection in their implementation is a herculean task amidst varying environments. This paper sketches and highlights about the scope of implementing reliable, secure, error-controlled fault-tolerant techniques in Electric Grid-systems. Thus, the paper talks about the sub-units of Smart Grid systems. The discussions on opportunities due to nanotechnology and incorporation of FPGAs are part of this paper. Hence, the design of this paper is well thought-out as the critical focal junction in enhancing the future in design of Smart Grid systems.</p> A. Ahmad, P. Lavanya, A. Elhaffar Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 PV Fabrikalarında Modül Hattı IV Data Verilerinin Yapay Zekâ Modelleri Kullanılarak Sınıflandırılması <p>Ülkelerin sanayi devrimiyle birlikte başlayan ekonomik kalkınma yarışı, teknolojik gelişmeler, nüfus artışı, insanların daha konforlu yaşam arzusu gibi nedenlerden dolayı özellikle son 50 yılda enerji tüketimi hızla artmıştır. Elektrik enerjisi açısından ise, sanayilere her geçen gün yeni tesislerin eklenmesi ve evlerde kullanılan elektrik enerjisinin sürekli artması, yeni enerji üretim tesislerinin kurulma ihtiyacını doğurmaktadır. Güneş enerjisi elektrik santrallerinin kurulması, bu enerji ihtiyaçlarının karşılanması açısından önem arz etmektedir. Birçok ülkede PV elektrik üretimi santrallerinin kurumları ilk dönemlerini yaşamaktadır. Ayrıca PV sistemler için doğru bir hata tespit yeteneği, işletme maliyetlerini ve bir arıza nedeniyle oluşabilecek devre dışı kalma sürelerini azaltarak PV sistemin verimliliğini artırabilir. Bu çalışmada, PV sistemler için bir hata tespit yöntemi önerilmiştir. Önerilen yöntem, topluluk öğrenmesi temelli bir modelin PV sistemlerdeki hataları sınıflandırmak amacıyla kullanılmasına dayanmaktadır. Bu faktörler göz önüne alınarak, güneş pillerinden üretilen elektrik enerjisinin kalitesi önemli ölçüde arttırılabilir.</p> <p>Bu çalışmada Modül Hattında üretilen paneller ortalama %98 A Class oranında üretilmektedir. IV makinesinde sınıflandırılan ve son kararı operator sağladığı kalite verimliliğini makine öğrenmesiyle ve hata oranını, verimlilik değerlerini kontrol edebilmektir. Bu proje ile hedeflenen bu ortalamaya etki eden faktörleri belirleyip, bu parametrelerin iyileştirilmesini, 6 sigma prensibi için gerekli olan istatistiksel araçları elde edilmesi , proses ve kalite süreçlerini optimize edilmesi , girdi değişkenleri ile çıktı değişkenlerinin arasındaki ilişkinin 6 sigmada sebep-sonuç ve neden-etki yapılarındaki tepkisini ölçülmesi, kalite sınıflarının testlerden sonra belirlenebileceği bir istatistiksel model kurulması , böylelikle %98 A Class kalite üretim oranının, daha yüksek bir seviyeye çıkarılması amaçlanmaktadır.</p> İrfan YILMAZ , Murat ŞİMŞEK Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 ChatGPT: A new study tool shaping the future for high school students <p>With the rapid progression of technology and the growing presence of natural language processing applications in everyday life, it is essential to explore how high school students engage with these tools and how they foresee their futures in light of these advancements. The goal of this study is to analyse the usage patterns and future value perceptions of ChatGPT among 70 high school students through a survey-based approach. A key finding highlights that technology has become an integral element of contemporary life, underscoring the historical relevance of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and the eagerness of the younger generation to adopt such emerging technologies. High school students utilise ChatGPT for various purposes, including academic support, social communication, and personal management, across both educational and social contexts. Moreover, the participants conveyed a positive outlook on the potential of ChatGPT to significantly impact their lives in the coming years while acknowledging possible hurdles. Based on the findings of this study, it is clear that NLP tools like ChatGPT have a crucial role in moulding the experiences and anticipations of high school students. This paper, therefore, sets the stage for additional research and development in this area.</p> Norbert Forman, József Udvaros , Mihály Szilárd Avornicului Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Developing computational thinking with microcontrollers in Education 4.0 <p>Industry 4.0 and Education 4.0 are two concepts that are closely linked, as both represent a shift towards a more technologically advanced and digitally driven future. Industry 4.0 is about the integration of advanced digital technologies into manufacturing and other industrial processes, while Education 4.0 is about the integration of technology, in particular digital technologies, into the teaching and learning process. The relationship between Industry 4.0 and Education 4.0 is mutually reinforcing. Education 4.0 aims to prepare learners for the demands of the 21st century workforce by equipping them with the skills and knowledge they need to thrive in a rapidly changing digital environment. The development of computational thinking skills is a key component of Education 4.0, as it is a foundational skill that underpins many of the digital technologies used in industry today. Computational thinking is a problem-solving approach that involves breaking complex problems into smaller, more manageable parts, identifying patterns and relationships, and creating algorithms to solve problems. Microcontrollers, also known as embedded systems, are small computers used to control electronic devices such as home appliances, cars and toys.&nbsp; Visualisation is an important tool in teaching about microcontrollers because it helps students understand abstract concepts and see how different components fit together. Visualisation helps students to gain a deeper understanding of how microcontrollers work and how electronic devices are controlled. This understanding can be particularly valuable for students who want to pursue a career in fields such as engineering, robotics or computer science.&nbsp;</p> József Udvaros, Norbert Forman, Mihály Szilárd Avornicului Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Considerations on Utilizing the Object-Oriented Paradigm in the Development of an MRP-based Production Planning SystemConsiderations on Utilizing the Object-Oriented Paradigm in the Development of an MRP-based Production Planning System <p>Manufacturing companies today face an increasingly dynamic environment. Development of production planning systems requires approaches that offer flexibility in development of solutions. Applying the UML (Unified Modeling Language) and MDA (Model Driven Architecture) paradigm can ensure compatibility between applications developed on different platforms. The MDA approach to software development becomes an obvious choice. In this approach, the models drive the process of software development. These models are defined at different levels of abstraction to represent various aspects of the system. The transformation of models from one level of abstraction to another, or the transformation of models to executable code is performed by using automated transformation tools. The strength of MDA lies in the fact that it is based on widely used industry standards for visualizing, storing and exchanging software designs and models. The models in MDA are abstracted at three different levels – the Computation Independent Model (CIM), the Platform Independent Model (PIM) and the Platform Specific Model (PSM).&nbsp; The key to the success of MDA lies in automated or semi-automated model-to-model and model-to-code transformations. In this paper, we examine how a platform-independent model of an MRP-based production planning system can be created using MDA approach, from which several platform-specific systems can be achieved, as required.&nbsp;</p> Mihály Szilárd Avornicului, József Udvaros, Norbert Forman Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 UWB Microstrip Patch Antenna Design for Energy Harvesting Applications <p>RF energy harvesting systems, which are the receiver part of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT), have gained significant development in recent years. For maximum energy acquisition over a wide frequency range, such as to provide power to small handheld devices like cell phones, tablets, smart watches, and other smart devices, wideband and compact antennas are desired. RF systems are expected to cover different frequency bands, such as 2.4 GHz, 5.1 GHz, 5.8 GHz (Bluetooth/Wi-Fi), 2.3 GHz, 2.5 GHz, 3.5 GHz, 5 GHz (WiMAX), for energy harvesting. For such an RF harvesting system, the antenna is desired to have a wide bandwidth, good gain, and an omnidirectional radiation pattern. Energy harvesting devices refer to designs that integrate production and storage. For instance, radio frequency energy sources contain a large amount of electromagnetic energy in the environment, and with RF energy harvesting systems, a portion of this electromagnetic energy can be collected and converted into usable DC voltage. Microstrip patch antennas are very good alternatives for energy harvesting applications because they are cost-effective, compact in size and weight, flat in structure, and highly repeatable. This paper presents a microstrip patch antenna with a bandwidth of 3.9 GHz in the 3.4 to 7.3 GHz range for UWB applications. The antenna design has a gain value of 3.28dBi at the numerically calculated resonance frequency of 4.9 GHz and generally covers frequencies used for electronic device communication such as Wi-Fi 5 GHz and WiMAX. The proposed antenna design has gain values that are allowed to be used for RF energy harvesting applications.</p> Beyza Kanboz, Merih Palandoken Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 ns-3 Ağ Simülatörü ile OpenSSL Kütüphanesinin Entegre Edilmesi ve Bir Kimliği Doğrulanmış Şifrelemenin Uygulanması <p>Güvenlik, günümüz iletişim teknolojilerinin olmazsa olmazlarındandır. İletişim halindeki taraflar arasında akan ağ trafiğinin gizliliğinden ve bütünlüğünden emin olabilmek son derece önemlidir. Bunları sağlamak için geliştirilmiş algoritmalar ve protokoller güvenliğin sağlanmasının yanı sıra sanal özel ağlar gibi ağ erişilebilirliğinin kontrol edilebildiği özel ağların oluşturulmasında da kullanılabilir. Anahtar değişiminden şifrelemeye/deşifrelemeye, ordan dijital imzalamaya kadar birçok uygulama alanına sahip bu algoritmalar ve protokollerin öğretimi için her ne kadar fiziksel ağ ortamı oluşturup kullanmak öğretimin kalitesini artıracak olsa da böyle bir ortamın kurulması ve devamlılığının sağlanabilmesi her açıdan maliyetlidir. Bu yüzden bu tür eğitimler sırasında genellikle ağ simülatörleri kullanılır. Geliştirilen kriptografik algoritmalar ve protokoller simülatör ortamına entegre edilerek nasıl çalıştıkları uygulamalı olarak gösterilir ve ağ protokollerinin çalışma performansına etkisi bu çalışmalar sırasında gözlemlenebilir. Bu çalışmada biz ücretsiz, açık kaynak ve kaliteli destek ekibine sahip olması nedeniyle akademik çalışmalarda sıklıkla kullanılan ns-3 ağ simülatörünü ve uluslararası standartların belirlemiş olduğu kriptografik algoritma ve protokolleri içeren OpenSSL kütüphanesini kullandık. Çalışmamızın amacı OpenSSL kütüphanesini ns-3 ağ simülatörüne entegre etmektir. Özellikle ifade etmek gerekirse, biz bu çalışmada OpenSSL kütüphanesinin ve ns-3 ağ simülatörünün kurulumunun nasıl yapılması gerektiğini ve OpenSSL kütüphanesini ns-3 ağ simülatörüne entegre edebilmek için ns-3 simülatörünün yapılandırma dosyalarında ne tür düzenlemeler yapılması gerektiğini gösterdik. Son olarak, 256 bitlik anahtar kullanan ve Galois/Counter modunda çalışan AES algoritmasının ns-3 ağ simülatöründe var olan bir örnek simülasyon programına nasıl eklenmesi gerektiğini açıkladık. Çalışmamızın ağ/bilgisayar/IoT vb. güvenliği dersleri veren akademisyenler için uygulamalı gösterim konusunda faydalı olacağı kanaatindeyiz.</p> Samet Tonyalı Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 KOSGEB Ar-Ge ve İnovasyon Desteklerinin İmalatçı Firmalar Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Araştırılması: Kayseri İli Örneği <p>Teknolojik gelişmeler tüketicilerde yeni talepler oluşturmuş ve bu durum işletmeleri ve ülkeleri yoğun bir rekabet ortamı içerisine sürüklemiştir. Bu zor rekabet ortamında işletmelerin varlıklarını devam ettirmeleri teknolojik seviyelerini sürekli geliştirmeleri ile mümkün olabilmektedir. Teknolojik ilerleme kaydedebilmenin yolu teknolojik bilgi birikimi sahibi olmaktan geçmektedir. Bilgi birikimini gerçekleştirebilmek için ise ar-ge ve inovasyon konularında çalışmalar yapmak bir tercih olmaktan ziyade zorunluluk haline gelmiştir. Bu sebeple ülkeler de çeşitli kamu kuruluşları vasıtasıyla özel sektör işletmelerine ar-ge ve inovasyon çalışmalarında çeşitli destek fonları sağlamaktadır. Ülkemizde ise KOSGEB; ar-ge, inovasyon alanında işletmelerin teknolojik düzeylerinin geliştirilmesi için destekleme görevini üstlenmektedir. Verilen ar-ge inovasyon desteklerinin teknolojik ilerlemeye katkısının değerlendirilmesi etki analizleri ile mümkün olmaktadır. KOSGEB ve hedef kitlesi açısından da destek programlarının etki değerlendirmesi yapılarak gerekli önlemlerin alınması gerekmektedir. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada imalat alanında faaliyet gösteren işletmelerin Ar-Ge İnovasyon Destek Programı kapsamında kullandıkları personel gideri desteği ile makine-teçhizat desteklerinin net satış, ihracat ve çalışan sayıları üzerindeki etkisinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla araştırmanın örneklemini oluşturan Kayseri ilindeki 61 işletmeden toplanan verilerle etki değerlendirmesi yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları makine-teçhizat desteğinin net satış, ihracat ve çalışan sayısı üzerinde anlamlı etkisinin olduğunu göstermiştir. Personel gideri desteğinin ise net satışlar, ihracat ve çalışan gün sayısı üzerinde anlamlı etkisi olmadığını ortaya çıkarmıştır.</p> İhsan Yapar, Fatih Yücel Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Active learning and effective teaching strategies <p>This paper aims to present active learning as an approach to education that emphasizes student engagement and participation. This approach contrasts with traditional lecture-based teaching, where students are passive recipients of information. This paper will discuss the benefits of active learning and the effective strategies for its implementation. It will present some of the benefits of the active learning for students such as the increased student engagement and motivation that can lead to better retention of material and improved academic performance, and the promotion of critical thinking and problem-solving skills, through activities such as group work and problem-solving encouraging students to think critically and apply their knowledge to real-world situations. The paper will also highlight several effective ways for teachers to develop knowledge in active learning through attendance of workshops and training sessions, active collaboration with colleagues, engagement in self-study, experimenting with active learning. The paper also will discuss strengths and weaknesses of this approach and give some practical examples of teaching strategies for active involvement of students and give some basic rules of the approach. The paper will conclude that active learning is an approach to teaching and learning that promotes student engagement and participation in the learning process. It includes a variety of strategies, such as discussion, writing, and cooperative learning, which can be used to actively engage students in the classroom. Active learning can improve learning outcomes, promote critical thinking skills, and increase student motivation and interest in the subject.&nbsp;</p> Besa Dogani Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Integration of Renewable Energy in Green Hydrogen Generation <p>The inclusion of renewable energies, especially photovoltaic energy in the green hydrogen production is a very promising idea in the field of energy. However, these sources are unstable and susceptible to a variety of atmospheric influences, including temperature and illumination, for this reason, we must address these issues before we can adopt renewable energy as a major source in hydrogen production. Using Matlab software, we will construct an autonomous photovoltaic system that uses a DC-DC boost converter to link the PV array to the load. To improve the efficiency of the photoelectric power, we will utilize the perturbation and observation MPPT approach.&nbsp;</p> Benchenina Yacine, Zemmit Abderrahim Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 04 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Petrography and Textural Characteristics of Late Cretaceous Orbicular Gabbro West of Elazığ (Turkey) <p>The lithological units outcropping in the study area are located in the Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt, one of the most important parts of the Alpine-Himalayan Orogenic Belt. The units of the study area are Middle Devonian-Lower Cretaceous Keban Metamorphics, Upper Cretaceous Elazığ Magmatics, Upper Maastrichtian-Paleocene Seske Formation, Middle Eocene-Upper Oligocene Kırkgeçit Formation and Quaternary cover units. The study area crops out in a local area within the Hısırık creek in the north of Sarıgül village of Baskil county, which is located in the west of Elazig province in Southeast Turkey. Elazig magmatic complex contains plutonic and sub-volcanic rocks, mainly felsic and mafic compositions. Plutonic rocks with felsic composition include granite, granodiorite, tonalite and quartz monzonites, while sub-volcanic rocks include aplite. Plutonic rocks with mafic composition are represented by diorite, quartz diorite, gabbro and orbicular gabbro, and sub-volcanic rocks are represented by diabase and diorite porphyries.&nbsp; The orbicular gabbros contain orbicles ranging in size from 1 cm to 15 cm, formed by repetitive concentric circles of fine and coarse grains. All these orbicles consist of concentric circles that show magmatic textures both in macro specimens and under the microscope. Orbicular circles were formed by the crystallisation of basic magma in the form of a circular texture by conventional repetition as a result of adding a basic new magma that was later included in the magma chamber during the crystallisation of basic magma. Mineralogical and petrographic features suggest that the orbicular gabbro is part of mafic igneous enclaves within intrusive mafic rocks.</p> Mehmet Ali Ertürk, Abdullah Sar Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 08 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Preliminary Findings of Fe-Skarn Mineralization in Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt (Pertek, Tunceli) <p>The Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt (SAOB), one of the most important belts in Turkey, is located north of the Bitlis-Zagros Suture Zone. Major iron mineralizations are also observed along this belt. The Pertek (Tunceli) region is one of the dominant Fe-Skarn mineralizations. Keban Metamorphites of Permo-Carboniferous age forms the basement of the region. It is mainly represented by metacarbonates, marbles and schists, respectively. This unit is also cut by intrusive rocks from the Upper Cretaceous Elazığ Magmatic Complex (EMC). Tertiary volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks also overlie both units with angular unconformity. Fe-Skarn was formed at the contact of carbonates belonging to Keban Metamorphites and diorites belonging to EMC. Macroscopically, magnetite crystals and garnet can be observed in the skarn formation, which is easily distinguished by its colour. Polarizing microscopy revealed quartz, calcite, garnet, pyroxene, chlorite and opaque minerals. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the garnet is andraditic, and the ore minerals are magnetite and hematite. In the ore microscopy, it was determined that magnetite was first transformed into hematite and then hematite into goethite. Regarding the major oxide concentrations of the samples taken from the region, it was determined that the Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> value reached a maximum of 60% (average 21.94%), SiO<sub>2</sub> (average 38.20%) and CaO (average 23.58%) concentrations were high, and Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> concentration was generally low. Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> concentration reaches 17.96 % in the sample where clayification is common. The findings of this study provide a baseline for identifying the origin of the Pertek Fe-Skarn formation.&nbsp;</p> Cihan Yalçın, Hatice Kara, Mehmet Ali Ertürk, Leyla Kalender, Mustafa Kumral Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 08 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Development of Composite Materials from Phenol Formaldehyde Resins and Evaluation of Their Uses <p>In this study, the properties, application areas, and use of phenol formaldehyde resins in composite materials have been investigated. The usage areas of phenol formaldehyde resins are getting more and more widespread. Composite materials are being developed by using them together with fibrous biomass sources. Besides, industrial wastes or inorganic fillers are also supplemented with phenol formaldehyde resin. While phenol formaldehyde-based composites are produced, wastes causing environmental pollution are evaluated and some properties of the composites are improved according to the purpose of use. Generally, organic fiber biomass wastes improve the mechanical properties of phenol formaldehyde-based composites. Inorganic industrial wastes also improve both the thermal stability and non-flammability of composites. Reinforcing materials used as fillers interact physically with phenol formaldehyde-based composites. However, biomass sources can also form chemical bonds with some modification processes. To reduce the use of petrochemical components in phenol formaldehyde-based composites, bioraw material syntheses have been carried out. Thus, new generation composites are being developed that are both environmentally friendly and have a low carbon footprint. Moreover, the reinforcement of hard-to-recycle plastics into phenol formaldehyde increases the workability of the composites.</p> Ahmet Beyzade Demirpolat, Ercan Aydoğmuş Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Productivity Prediction of Garment Employees using Multiple Linear Regression <p>This paper presents a multiple linear curve fitting method for finding how the change of manipulated variables affect the final result using productivity prediction of garment employees data set. To perform fitting, a function is defined, which depends on the parameters that measures the closeness between the data and model. The simplest form of modelling is linear regression, which is the prediction of one variable from another. When the relationship between a few variables are assumed to be linear, then multiple linear regression will be used to model the relationship between a continuous response variable and continuous or categorical explanatory variables.</p> Yann Ling Goh, Chern Long Ng, Raymond Ling Leh Bin Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 DC Voltage Output Control of a Hybrid Synchronous Generator-based Wind Turbine <p>This article discusses regulating a Wind Turbine (WT) that uses a Hybrid Excitation Synchronous Generator (HESG) to power an isolated load via a diode bridge rectifier. The HESG acts as a DC generator and supplies power to the DC load. The primary objective of the suggested control strategy is to maintain a steady DC voltage output, even when there are changes in rotor speed and/or load. The entire system is simulated and modelled in Matlab/Simulink, and the simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed method in delivering power to an isolated location.</p> Walid Mohammed KACEMI, Elhadj BOUNADJA, Abdelkadir BELHADJ DJILALI Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Petrographic features of Late Cretaceous biotite granites in the Kurtoğlu region (Elazığ/Turkey) <p>The study area is located in a local area around Kurtoğlu village of Elazığ province, located within the Southeast Anatolian Orogenic Belt. The studied biotite granites belong to the Elazig Magmatic Complex. The Elazığ Magmatic Complex is grouped into volcanic, sub-volcanic and plutonic rocks and mafic and felsic. Felsic rocks belonging to the Elazığ Magmatic Complex are represented by granite, granodiorite, tonalite, quartz monzonite, monzodiorite, and mafic rocks are represented by diorite, quartz diorite and gabbros. The biotite granites are porphyric biotite minerals with an average size of one cm. Petrographically, they are composed of K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite and opaque minerals. K-feldspars have low birefringence colours, grey tones, and earthy colours in single nicol. Plagioclases; anhedral, euhedral and mostly subhedral crystals. They typically indicate albite, albite+karlsbad and polysynthetic twinning. In some samples, sericitization and carbonation are observed mostly in the middle parts of the plagioclase resulting from alteration.&nbsp; Biotites; It is generally in the form of subhedral platy-prismatic, rod-like crystals. Pleochroism is seen in brown tones in single nicol. It has high birefringence colours and indicates vivid interference colours in yellowish, blue and green, especially brown tones in double nicol.&nbsp; Porphyritic texture in which phenocryst and smaller crystals are generally observed in granites.</p> Abdullah Sar, Mustafa Eren Rizeli Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Hydrogen Production and Storage Methods <p>Conventional fuels are not renewable resources and are getting depleted day by day. In addition, the by-products of the combustion of these fuels cause environmental problems. This situation, which threatens the world, has led to the search for new energy sources. Hydrogen, as an energy carrier, creates a potential for solving these problems. Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe, with the highest energy content per weight of all conventional fuels. But unlike conventional fuels, hydrogen is not easily found in nature and is produced from primary energy sources. Therefore, it is a renewable fuel. When used in a fuel cell, only water is produced as a by-product. From this point of view, when compared to any fuel, it stands out as a fuel with the highest energy content and does not contain carbon. The biggest problem in using hydrogen gas as a fuel is that it is not found in nature and economically cheap production methods are needed. Hydrogen can be produced in two different ways, biological and chemical. Chemical methods are not preferred because they are costly. Biological methods, on the other hand, are low-cost, sustainable, environmentally friendly methods. In this study, information of hydrogen energy and its historical development is given. Thus, a projection is made for the importance and future of hydrogen energy. Then, hydrogen production methods are explained and compared. In addition, information about hydrogen storage types is given.</p> Barış Ayar, Muhammed Bora Akın Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 An overview of the mechanical characterizations and applications of chopped fiber reinforced composites <p>Composite materials are widely used in many industries due to their basic properties such as high strength, high rigidity, and lightness. However, composites with desired properties differ in each sector. Fiber reinforcement and matrix selection vary depending on application requirements. Composites consisting of reinforcement and matrix elements are classified according to these elements. Chopped fiber reinforced composites, which are included in the classification depending on the reinforcement element, have a wide range of applications. Apart from lightness, it has many advantages, such as high strength, high rigidity, low thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance, and ease of production. Their lower cost of production compared to other composites makes them attractive. It is very important to make various characterizations of these composites in order to improve their properties and expand their use in the places where they are used. Researchers have done many studies on this subject. In this article, a review of the studies is presented. Various mechanical and thermal tests and their results were examined. Different internal structure observations are handled with analysis methods. In addition, the application of chopped fiber reinforced composites is detailed. Suggestions were made for the problems limiting the use of these materials.</p> Sakine KIRATLI Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 A Research on Rheological Behavior of Aqueous Solutions of Pomegranate Peel Powder <p>Determining the viscosity of pomegranate peel powder (PPP) can aid in product development, process optimization, quality control, ingredient interactions, and scientific research related to pomegranate peel-based products or formulations. Therefore, in this study, the rheological behavior of dried and ground pomegranate peel has been investigated. The apparent viscosities of pomegranate peel solutions prepared with distilled water are measured by a rotational viscometer. The viscosity of the pomegranate peel solution at each concentration is measured at shear rates varying between 2.64 s<sup>-1</sup> and 22 s<sup>-1</sup> at constant temperature (25 °C). When the effect of concentration on apparent viscosity has been examined, it is observed that the viscosity rises with increasing concentration at a constant shear rate. Among the rheological models studied, Power model provides a good fit for the experimental viscosity data of aqueous solutions of pomegranate peel powder at different concentrations. The consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index are calculated using the power law model and the solutions have been found to exhibit pseudoplastic behavior.</p> Mukaddes Karataş, Ercan Aydoğmuş Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Optimal Time Intervals Between Personal Mammogram Test Decisions <p>Excluding skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women in the United States, accounting for one in three diagnosed cases. A woman's chance of developing invasive breast cancer in her lifetime is approximately 1 in 8 (12%). While mammography has been effective in early detection, its use has resulted in a minor increase in the number of in situ cancers detected. However, mammography carries potential risks, such as exposure to unnecessary radiation, additional costs, psychological stress, and the possibility of false-positive results. Although the American Cancer Society recommends annual testing, it may be unnecessary for healthy women. In this paper, we aim to find the optimal interval between mammogram tests, balancing the benefits and risks of testing while reducing the false-positive rate and number of tests. To achieve this, we use decision trees, utility theory, and Bayes' theorem to calculate the quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of patients.&nbsp;</p> Muhammed Sütçü Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Increasing Annual Profit of Wind Farm Using Improved Genetic Algorithm <p>Wind energy, a prominent renewable source of energy, has expanded rapidly in the past few decades. This paper focuses on raising the yearly profit of a possible wind farm in the Kayathar area of India using an enhanced genetic algorithm. Novel dynamic techniques for assigning the probabilities of crossover and mutation operations have been applied for the genetic algorithm-based optimization method along with the conventional static approach. Non-linear functions have been applied for dynamically allocating the crossover and mutation factors for the genetic algorithm-based optimization process. The analysis outcomes of the proposed technique have been compared with the solutions attained by the genetic algorithm with the standard static approach of allocating the crossover and mutation factors. The evaluation outcomes confirm the superiority of the novel non-linearly incrementing methodology over the non-linearly decrementing and static approach of allocating the crossover and mutation probabilities for attaining a more optimal annual profit.&nbsp;</p> Prasun Bhattacharjee, Somenath Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Investıgation of Drying Methods of Tarhana Produced in Çankırı Region by Taguchi Method <p>In this study, the drying behaviour of tarhana consumed in Çankırı region was investigated with various drying methods and optimum drying conditions were determined using experimental Taguchi design method. Solar, conventional oven and microwave oven methods were used for drying purposes. Different temperatures and microwave powers were used in the ovens and tarhana was also dried under sun light. The effective drying parameters were examined concerning the tarhana in the thickness and varying drying period. The data obtained were subjected to variance analysis. Statistical significance was determined in terms of strength, temperature, thickness and time parameters. Conventional oven drying optimization was found to be more successful with the lower p value than 0.01. After drying, tarhana was analysed from humidity, ash, protein and colour values. The results were evaluated for the solar, oven or microwave dried samples.</p> Rana Başataç , Zehra Gülten Yalçın, Fatma Jale Gülen Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 New MPPT Control Methods for Grid Connected PV System to Produce Green Hydrogen <p>In this document, we used Matlab 2022 software to design a 50 kW PV array and connect it to the grid with a single stage power converter. The power control strategy uses a combination of MPPT (P&amp;O) and inverter control algorithms. For this reason, we changed the power control algorithm for current control. The next work is to connect this system to electrolyzers and fuel cells and find new optimization methods for grid-connected systems to produce green hydrogen.</p> Benchenina Yacine, Zemmit Abderrahim, Bouzaki Mohammed Moustafa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Z and alpha generation teaching methods: digitalization of learning material <p>Digitalization is an emerging and inevitable part of everyday life and this also applies to education. The static learning material belongs to the multitude. Increasingly widespread artificial intelligence and other innovative technologies are facilitating the roll-out of personalized curricula and interactive learning materials. The trend in education is towards digitalisation and the appropriate use of information communication tools. Our research explores the importance, advantages and emerging disadvantages of digital learning materials. Furthermore, as a result of a quantitative survey of students, it is based on the interactive digitisation of learning materials using virtual models. Pupils, regardless of their level of education, demand digital learning materials and the use of information and communication tools in class, as Generation Z and Alpha are growing up with these tools. Educational establishments should therefore not restrict or prohibit the use of these tools, but should find ways of effectively integrating them into the classroom. Our aim is to motivate educators to increasingly complement traditional paper-based static learning materials with interactive digital learning materials. We have also worked to create interactive three-dimensional models for students to motivate and explore within the biology subject to support the teaching process. In summary, our article points out the importance of a certain degree of digitalisation of curricula and presents a model for possible future developments in contrast to static learning materials.&nbsp;</p> Norbert Annuš, Ondrej Takáč, Iveta Štempeľová, Daniel Dancsa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Industry 4.0 from the perspective of Education 4.0 <p>Industry 4.0, or the fourth industrial revolution, means the automation of industrial processes, digitalization and the use of data in order to increase the efficiency and quality of production processes. Industry 4.0 also affects other areas of the economy, as well as education. The concept of Education 4.0 strives to modernize and apply education to the age of Industry 4.0 using new technologies and methods.</p> <p>The main goal of Education 4.0 is to prepare students for the challenges of Industry 4.0 and to give them skills and knowledge that they will need in the digital age. This new educational model is no longer only about the transfer of information, but also focuses on developing students' abilities and renewing their problem-solving skills. Education for student-centered education aims to increase student motivation, develop individual skills and improve learning outcomes.</p> <p>To implement Education 4.0, educational institutions need to provide the infrastructure and infrastructure that enables students to use digital technologies and virtual learning. For students, Education 4.0 also includes interactive learning opportunities such as online courses, videos, and interactive learning materials.</p> <p>In this article, we present the methods and thematic units that should be taught so that students can meet the challenges of Industry 4.0.</p> József Udvaros, Miklós Gubán, Ákos Gubán, Ágnes Sándor Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 15 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Necessity of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises <p>For small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), the advantages of ERP systems are obvious. Many small businesses initially use different software and applications to manage each business process, such as separate programs for invoicing, finance, sales, etc. However, these programs are not integrated with each other, which can cause problems such as data loss between different databases, errors caused by manual data entry, and time-consuming manual processes.</p> <p>However, ERP systems provide a single, integrated system that connects all important business processes, reducing data loss and errors. With the help of an ERP system, businesses can manage finances more efficiently, implement more consistent sales and marketing strategies, better plan and organize production and logistics processes, and manage human resources more effectively.</p> <p>However, ERP systems also have some disadvantages, such as implementation costs and time-consuming implementation. In addition, businesses should choose an ERP system according to the number of their staff and the complexity of their processes to best suit their needs.</p> <p>The efficient operation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the growth of their performance is facilitated by the use of various technologies/techniques. Covid19 has highlighted even more the importance of using these technologies - which differ from sector to sector - but at what point during the company's life cycle does an SME reach the stage where it already needs a complex, integrated business management system ERP? &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ákos Gubán, Ágnes Sándor, József Udvaros, Miklós Gubán Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 15 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Mathematical Model and A Solution Method of the Establishment of Logistics Centres <p>In this article, I will give an integer non-linear programming model of the first phase of the three-phase method. The objective function of this model has got an indefinite quadratic form. This problem has not got any exact algorithm. But the variables of the model are special, as these are integer variables, and their values are 0 or 1. If we substitute these variables with new special variables, and change some conditions, the new model will be linear integer programming model. The components of the original objective function are rational numbers (these components are cost components), so it can give a new objective function with integer coefficients. The optimum of this new function will correspond with the original objective function. The new model with the new objective function has got an exact solving method this time.</p> Miklós Gubán, Ákos Gubán, József Udvaros , Ágnes Sándor Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 15 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Unlocking Success in IT: A Systematic Exploration of Soft and Hard Skills and Their Collaborative Dynamics across Information Technology Roles <p>The ability to identify and develop critical soft and hard skills is paramount for professionals seeking to excel in the Information Technology (IT) industry. A groundbreaking and systematic exploration of the essential soft and hard skills required for various IT roles is presented in this paper, along with a discussion of how collaborative dynamics influence their interconnection. In this study, we propose a novel model that explains the intricate relationships between these skills and how they impact performance within and across IT roles, based on a comprehensive analysis of existing literature, in-depth interviews with industry experts, and a large-scale survey of IT professionals.</p> <p>Our findings indicate distinct soft and hard skill requirements for each IT role, emphasizing the importance of a well-rounded skill set for effective collaboration and synergy. Moreover, our research reveals the dynamic nature of the IT sector, indicating a growing need for professionals who are capable of adapting and growing their skills as technology advances.</p> <p>As IT professionals, educators, and organizations strive to understand and develop the skills necessary to succeed in the industry, the proposed model serves as a valuable resource. Furthermore, our findings contribute to the ongoing discourse regarding the future of work in IT, providing insights into the evolving nature of skills and roles, as well as the critical connections that drive innovation and progress.</p> Norbert Forman, Mihály Szilárd Avornicului , Szabó László Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 15 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Internet Strategy As An Opportunity And Challenge For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises <p>Small and medium-sized enterprises play a decisive role in increasing the competitiveness of the economy. The European Union strives to create a favorable business environment for them. Considering either Romania or Hungary, more than 94% of the entire corporate sector is made up of small and medium-sized enterprises. In our century, computer technology seeped into the Internet almost unnoticed. The innovations brought by computer technology have a great impact on businesses as well. The focus of the study is an (internet) strategy that provides new opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises. Today, we can almost say that there is no separate "Internet strategy", just simply strategy, since computing technology is everywhere, it is difficult to separate it from sales, marketing and other company functions.</p> <p>The corporate strategy defines the company's (organization, enterprise) long-term (shorter-term, depending on market conditions) goals, the methods, tools, and opportunities necessary to achieve them, which determine its scope of operation. Related to this is the process of strategic planning, which considers, evaluates and decides on the programs and projects that must be implemented in order to achieve the set goals.</p> <p>The corporate strategy is the set of concepts that designate the company's long-term goals, allocate resources to the goals to the extent necessary to achieve them, determine the directions of development, and the framework for the realization of the goals. In a fortunate case, the strategy is based on the company's core values, it is in line with the company's mission, i.e. the mission, the company's self-definition in the present, and the company's vision, the company's future self-definition.</p> <p>The majority of company managers do not see the different cloud services as well-founded and risk-free enough to use them to meet the company's needs. In the study, we review the various cloud services, as well as their challenges and opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises.&nbsp;</p> Mihály Szilárd Avornicului, Norbert Forman, László Szabó Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 15 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Investigation of copper corrosion behavior in chloride bath for nickel electrodeposition <p>The present study is devoted to the electrodeposition of&nbsp; nickel layers on copper substrates by cyclic voltammetry from chloride bath at a scan rate of 20 mV/s and at different bath temperatures between 25 and 55 °C&nbsp; and&nbsp; then after to their&nbsp; corrosion behavior in chloride bath. The electrochemical behavior and corrosion properties were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, potentiodynamic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. While the surface analysis of nickel coating at different temperatures was conducted by optical microscopy and white light interferometer (WLI). The obtained results show that the Ni layers have been deposited successfully on the Cu substrates. It was found that raising the bath temperature to 55 °C leads to smoother, dense, compact and recovering Ni coatings with a grain size of 0.024 nm and 0.294 µm as average roughness, which is mainly due to Ni grain refinement. While the effect of increasing bath temperature leads to a decrease in the corrosion resistance of copper.</p> Amira Gharbi, Youcef Hamlaoui Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 18 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Blockchain in Practice? <p>The digital future has reached a new milestone and brought major changes to industries. Blockchain technology has taken centre stage in recent years. The range of blockchain and distributed ledger technologies (DLT) has great potential to create an infrastructure for reliable, decentralised and unmediated services beyond the financial sector. In logistics, blockchain-centric solutions are being sought to perform infocommunications activities with distributed databases. Business users expect a leap in efficiency and speed in the execution of their daily processes. Blockchains can be used to take digitisation and monitoring to a higher level. However, the question is how this can be used in everyday life. How to acquire the right digital competences, how to make complex systems. We can see that ICT is also making progress in the field of education. It is important to build and develop digital competences. The European Union has also recognised the importance of this area and has launched a testing system. In this paper, we briefly describe the functioning of the blockchain. We will show that it can be used in many areas of the economy. We will also touch upon education in the ICT field with a special focus on digital education. Finally, the future expectations of the European Union are outlined.</p> László Szabó, Norbert Forman , Mihály Szilárd Avornicului Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Fri, 19 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Application of mathematical models for predicting the trihalomethanes content in drinking water in the city of Kumanova, North Macedonia <p>Trihalomethanes (THMs) are created as a result of the reaction between chlorine used to disinfect drinking water and natural organic matter in water. At high levels, THMs have been associated with cancer. As a consequence, THMs must be constantly monitored. They are mainly determined by the method of gas chromatography, which is a more difficult procedure and at a higher cost. In recent years, however, mathematical models have been used to predict THMs. These models work by measuring some physico-chemical parameters of drinking water, those values ​​of these parameters are replaced in mathematical models and the THMs content in drinking water can be predicted. The main purpose of this paper was to predict the content of THMs in the drinking water of the city of Kumanova. The measured parameters were: temperature, residual chlorine, pH, electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen, total dissolved solids and chlorides. Measurements were made during the spring season 2022 in the four sampling points. Ten mathematical models were used for prediction and of them the average value with standard deviation of THM was 26.9532 ± 10.03 μg/L. From the result we can conclude that content of THM does not pose a risk to the health of the population.</p> Bujar H. Durmishi, Arbana Durmishi, Arianit A. Reka, Agim Shabani Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Fri, 19 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Kur’an-i Kerim ve Kitab-i Mukaddeste Hukuki Açidan Aileye Bakiş <p>Kutsal kitaplar, insanlar arasındaki ilişkileri ve aile yapısını düzenleyen hukuki prensipleri içermektedir. Aile, her kutsal kitapta da çok önemli bir konudur ve insanların hayatındaki en temel birimlerden biridir. Kur'an-ı Kerim, aile kavramını Allah'ın insanlara lütfettiği bir nimet olarak tanımlar. İslam dininde evlilik, iki kişinin karşılıklı rızası ile gerçekleşen bir sözleşme olarak kabul edilir ve bu sözleşme tarafların birbirine karşı sorumluluklarını ve haklarını belirler. Ayrıca Kur'an-ı Kerim, aile içinde sevgi, saygı ve adaletin korunmasını vurgular.</p> <p>Kitab-ı Mukaddes ise aileyi, Tanrı'nın insanlara verdiği bir armağan olarak tanımlar. Kitap, evliliğin birlikte yaşamak, çocuk sahibi olmak, birbirine sadık kalmak ve birbirine yardım etmek anlamına geldiğini belirtir. Ayrıca Kitab-ı Mukaddes, aile içinde sevgi, saygı ve bağlılığın korunması gerektiğini vurgular. Her iki kitap da aile içindeki eşitlik ve adalet ilkesine büyük önem verir. Erkekler ve kadınlar arasında eşitlik prensibi kabul edilirken, her bir bireyin hakları ve sorumlulukları belirtilir. Ayrıca aile içinde çocukların korunması ve eğitimi de çok önemli bir konudur.</p> <p>Sonuç olarak, Kur'an-ı Kerim ve Kitab-ı Mukaddes, aile kavramını büyük bir saygı ve önemle ele alır ve insanların aile içinde sevgi, saygı ve adaletle birlikte yaşamasını öğütler.</p> Hysni Skura Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Fri, 19 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Digital tools in education <p>Over the past decades, the demands placed on education systems have changed. Workers in the labour market need certain competences such as technical, methodological, social and personal competences. The aim of education today is to create a new educational paradigm that prepares the workforce of the future for the new challenges. This change is accompanied by the introduction of new didactic concepts such as blended learning, which combines the advantages of face-to-face and online learning with the use of digital teaching tools that can help develop the desired competences. The pandemic has led to a huge and rapid increase in the use of digital tools in education, which has necessitated the development of guidelines for their use. Therefore, the aim of this work is to present the digital tools that have been introduced into education and that require the development of digital competences by students and teachers, thus enabling teachers and managers of educational institutions to take advantage of the use of digital tools in the post-pandemic renewed situation.</p> Daniel Dancsa, Iveta Štempeľová , Ondrej Takáč, Norbert Annuš Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 20 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Building partial 3D models of cultural monuments <p>"Contemporary society does not value the cultural heritage of its ancestors", is often heard. But this is not always due to people's reluctance and indifference. There are also objective reasons. Many cultural monuments cannot be maintained because of property rights and other intentions of the owners, sometimes because of lack of funds or because of political reasons - after the change of political regime there is no longer a strong motivation to protect and maintain the cultural monuments of the past regime. These monuments are slowly disappearing and are inevitably being gnawed by the ravages of time. This situation has not been helped by the COVID 19 pandemic, and it is not helped by the current post-pandemic era. The modern age and the modern technologies it has brought with it, even in the area of heritage protection, can be of great help to us. Everyday devices such as mobile phones, tablets and other ICT devices, which can be used to create 3D models without the need for professional equipment, are a good tool for preserving cultural heritage in digital form for an almost indefinite period of time. Therefore, this possibility is becoming accessible to the general public, even to individuals. We are already witnessing a rapid expansion of computer science and it can therefore be assumed (as our own experience has already taught us) that what we cannot currently complete or process perfectly, we may be able to do in the future. It therefore makes sense to address this issue. It is not always necessary to create a perfect model of a large building, but sometimes it is enough to preserve, for example, one wall, a fresco or a part of a real monument. And this is the area we will focus on in our paper.</p> Ondrej Takáč, Norbert Annuš, Iveta Štempeľová, Daniel Dancsa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 20 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 A Simplified read to Derrida’s Grammatology, Deconstruction in The Workhouse Ward for Lady Gregory <p>The year 1967 was the publication Of Grammatology by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. The book, which introduced the concept of deconstruction, suggests that in philosophical way. He discusses the theories about language and writing presented by many authours such as, Ferdinand de Saussure, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Martin Heidegger,&nbsp;throughout the book. Derrida doesn't merely criticises some of their theories,&nbsp;but he actually&nbsp;&nbsp;asks for a new&nbsp;science that&nbsp;&nbsp;called "grammatology" to investigate the issues he raises regarding how to theorise the act of writing. The aim of this paper is to simplify Derrida’s concepts according to what came in his book beside shedding the light of the important steps of how to deconstruct a text according to Derrida’s principles applying that to one play.</p> Yahya Kamal Mohammad Mostafa Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 20 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Gayrimenkul Değerlemesinde Yapay Sinir Ağlarının Kullanılması <p>Taşınmaz malları değerleme vergilendirme, kredi gibi birçok finansal alanı ilgilendiren, önemi gün geçtikçe artan bir çalışma alanı olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Taşınmaz değerleme gibi, sosyal ve ekonomik koşullara göre zaman içerisinde değişkenlik gösteren zor bir problemde, değerlemenin doğru ve objektif olarak yapılabilmesi için gelişmiş sistemlerin kullanımı zorunlu hale gelmiştir. Değerlemeye etki eden birçok parametrenin varlığı ve işlenmesi gereken büyük boyutta veri de göz önüne alındığında, klasik yöntemlerin aksine insan zekasına yakın yorumlar yapabilen makine öğrenmesi methodlarının kullanımına ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Bu çalışmanın amacı, tasaruf finansmanı sektöründe faaliyet gösteren firmalar için gayrimenkul ekspertiz ve değerleme süreçlerinde kullanılmak üzere, makine öğrenmesi yöntemlerinden yapay sinir ağı tabanlı bir sistem önerisi sunulmasıdır. Önerilen sistemin değerleme sürecinde, Türkiye’de yaygın kullanılan ilan sitelerindeki gayrimenkul bilgilerinden yola çıkılarak, en doğru değerlemenin yapılabilmesi için uzmana bir karar desteği sağlaması hedeflenmektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre önerilen sistemin, 0.86 ve 0.85 &nbsp;başarı değerlerine ulaştığını ve başarılı bir gayrimenkul değerleme sistemi olduğu belirlenmiştir.</p> Cengiz SERTKAYA, Zekeriya KÖSE Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 20 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Otomotiv Endüstrisinde Döngüsel Ekonomi ve Elektrikli Araçlar İçin Yaşam Döngüsü Değerlendirmesinin İncelenmesi <p>Dünya kaynaklarının hızla tüketildiği günümüzde döngüsel ekonomi kavramı gün geçtikçe daha çok önem kazanmaya başlamıştır. Ürünlerin imalat aşamalarında en az hammadde kullanımını amaçlayan ve sürdürülebilir bir endüstriyel sektör olarak tanımlanabilmektedir. Son birkaç yılda hem sosyal faydaları hem de çevre korumayı iyileştirdiği için araştırmacılar tarafından da dikkat çekmektedir. Karbon-nötr olma hedefini amaçlayan Avrupa Komisyonu 2019 yılında Avrupa Yeşil Mutabakatı anlaşmasını imzalamıştır. Ülkemizde de 2021 yılında imzalanan Yeşil Mutabakat,&nbsp; 2050 yılına kadar karbon emisyonundan arınmayı hedeflemektedir. Avrupa Mutabakatı kapsamında da kullanımının ve etkilerinin araştırılması yaygınlaşan elektrikli araçlar günümüzde de oldukça ilgi görmeye başlamıştır. Sera gazı azaltım hedefleri konusunda önemli katkı sunacağı düşünülen elektrikli araçların yaşam döngüsü değerlendirmesi yoluyla tüm çevresel etkileri belirlenerek değerlendirme ve yorumlama aşamaları sonunda elde edilmektedir. Çalışmada incelenen bazı literatür sonuçlarında bu araçların çevresel etkileriyle ilgili farklı sonuçlar olduğu görülmüştür. Elektrikli araçların sera gazı emisyonuna neden olan temel faktörün aracın üretim aşamasında ortaya çıktığı görülmüştür. Ancak mevcut durumun iyileştirilmesi için yapılacak yeni çalışmalar ve farklı teknolojik gelişmelerle bu etkilerin azaltılabileceği düşünülmektedir. Ülkemizde ve dünyada hem döngüsel ekonomi hem de elektrikli araçlara geçiş konusunda önemli katkı sağlayacak adımlar atılmakta ve politika çalışmaları yakından takip edilmektedir.</p> Sermin GÜNASLAN, Berrak EROL NALBUR, S.Sıddık CİNDORUK Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 20 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The importance of databases in web programming <p>Databases are fundamental when working with web applications. The database is a place where the data which is necessary for the operation of a web application is entered, read, deleted and updated on a daily basis.&nbsp; The aim of this paper is to consider the benefits of database’s implementation when it is used for data storage coming from a specific Web application. Hereof, in this paper are shown various advantages: starting from the exchange of data between the web application and the database, the security mechanisms available to the database, how to protect the data from the application stored in the database, how to confirm the identity of the user, data access etc. The subject of research in this paper is to regard more precisely the pros and cons of applying the database when it is used for storage of data coming from a specific Web application.</p> Najdovski Blagojche, Gordana Dimitrovska , Elena Joshevska Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 22 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Circularly Polarized L-Shaped Defected Ground Antenna for WLAN Communication Systems <p>With Industry 4.0, the evolution of technology has accelerated. As the information shared by people has increased, homes, cities and working environments have begun to be equipped with smart systems with the requirements of the age. IOT (internet of things) is spreading around the world. As a benefit of the advantages of wireless communication, technologies that provide information transmission using radio waves have gained importance. The increasing population in the world and its direct effect on demand require factories to keep production under control. This allows for renewal in manufacturing by triggering the contemporary transformation of the world. The transfer of this data has become an important issue as well as the increase in the amount of data generated. Wireless communication is provided by using radio frequency and studies are carried out on the 2.4 GHz ISM band frequency, which is the most frequently used. In this paper, circular polarized reader antenna with resonance frequency at 2.4 GHz and gain of 4.7 dBi is proposed. Resonance frequency covered by WLAN (wireless local area network) (2.4, 2.5 GHz). Impedance bandwidth -10 dB is between the frequencies 2.28 GHz and 2.53 GHz. &nbsp;The size of the designed antenna is 114mm x 65mm x 0.8mm.</p> Aynur Sena Çetinkaya, Merih Palandöken Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 22 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 EXPLORING THE LANDSCAPE OF SDN-BASED DDOS DEFENSE: A HOLISTIC EXAMINATION OF DETECTION AND MITIGATION APPROACHES, RESEARCH GAPS AND PROMISING AVENUES FOR FUTURE EXPLORATION <p>Over the course of time, a multitude of security solutions have been proposed in order to safeguard the Internet architecture from an extensive array of malware threats. However, the task of ensuring the security of the Internet and its associated applications remains an ongoing research challenge. Researchers persistently delve into the exploration of innovative network architectures, such as the utilization of HTTP as the narrow waist, the implementation of Named Data Networking (NDN), the development of programmable networks, and the adoption of Software-Defined Networking (SDN), with the aim of designing a more dependable and resilient network infrastructure. Among these alternative approaches, SDN has emerged as a robust and secure solution for countering malicious activities. By separating the control plane from the data plane, SDN provides an array of advantages, including enhanced manageability, improved control, dynamic rule updates, advanced analysis capabilities, and a comprehensive network overview facilitated by a centralized controller. Despite its superiority over conventional IP-based networks, SDN is susceptible to various network intrusions and encounters significant challenges in terms of deployment. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive review of approximately 70 prominent mechanisms employed for the detection and mitigation of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in SDN networks. These mechanisms are systematically categorized into four main groups, namely information theory-based methods, machine learning-based methods, approaches based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and other miscellaneous methods. Furthermore, the paper identifies and discusses several unresolved research issues and gaps that exist in the deployment of a secure DDoS defense solution within SDN networks. The objective of this comprehensive review is to provide valuable insights to the research community, assisting in the development of more robust and reliable DDoS mitigation solutions that are specifically tailored for SDN networks.</p> Tasnim ALASALI, Omar DAKKAK Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Mon, 22 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Design and Management of a Photovoltaic Pumping System <p>Solar energy is recognized as one of the most important renewable alternatives to electricity, especially in remote areas where solar energy is not available due to high line costs. This innovative and sustainable solution is becoming increasingly popular in many parts of the world due to its environmental and economic benefits.</p> <p>The purpose of this research is to study water pumping using photovoltaic energy. Optimization algorithms are used to track the maximum power point and apply it to control step-ups in order to operate the photovoltaic system at maximum capacity and predict the impact of climate change on system performances. Powering the converter, powering the frequency converter and analysis of motor pump operation under the influence of climate change is presented and discussed however the control system credibility and effectiveness is proved by simulation results under MatLab/Simulink software.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Layate Zakaria, Bahi Tahar Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 25 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 An Improved Multi-Pulse Rectifier Circuit for Input Current Harmonic Suppression Using Passive Devices <p>Renewable energy resources, such as solar and wind, are increasingly being integrated into power systems to promote sustainable and clean energy generation. However, the intermittent nature of these resources poses challenges in terms of harmonics, power factor and power quality. This paper focuses on the use of multi-pulse rectifiers (MPR) as a solution for enhancing the performance and grid integration of renewable energy resources. A novel approach is introduced, combining a phase-shifting transformer that provides a five-phase input to a series of 20-pulse rectifiers with a pulse-tripling circuit (PPTC). By modulating the resultant currents of bridge rectifiers with PPTC, the rectifier’s pulse number is raised from 20 to 60, resulting in enhanced reduction of input current harmonics. The proposed rectifier configuration achieves an input current with an approximate sinusoidal waveform, exhibiting a Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of less than 4%. The proposed scheme offers several advantages. It is simple, utilizing only passive components without the need for active devices, making it easy to implement, improving the performance of rectifier, ensuring compliance with power quality standards, and enabling reliable operation in medium- and high-voltage electronic systems.</p> Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Ahmad Khurshid , Tahir Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 25 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Chatbots in Education: The impact of Artificial Intelligence based ChatGPT on Teachers and Students <p>The assimilation of artificial intelligence into education is an inevitable phenomenon. Intelligent tools provide opportunities such as personalized instruction, automated assessment and, last but not least, teaching with virtual assistants or chatbots. Chatbots and other virtual assistants have been on the market for years and have been used for educational purposes on various Q&amp;A platforms. ChatGPT, however, can be considered as an intellectual revolution of chatbots that have been released so far. ChatGPT has taken the concept of artificial intelligence to a new level and it was inevitable that it would make its debut in education. However, in schools, this level and relative novelty can bring not only benefits but also dangers. In this article, we discuss the potential of ChatGPT in the educational process. We look at the impact it can have on students, pointing out both the positives and the negatives. We then look at the opportunities for teachers. Finally, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made as to the aspects that teachers and students need to adhere to in order to effectively implement ChatGPT in their everyday education.</p> Norbert Annuš Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 25 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 YSZ Termal Bariyer Kaplamanın Elektroforetik Nano-YSZ Kaplama ile Korozyon Direncinin İyileştirilmesi <p>Termal bariyer kaplamalar başta jet motorları olmak üzere türbinlerde kanatçık, egzoz ve yanma odası duvarı gibi sıcaklığa maruz kalan parçaların korunmasında kullanılmaktadır. Yüksek ısıl dayanımı, düşük ısı iletkenliği, yüksek termal şok dayanımı ve mikro yapısal özelliklerinden dolayı %7-8 itriya ile kararlı hale getirilmiş zirkonyum oksit (YSZ) malzemesi termal bariyer olarak yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında, atmosferik plazma sprey (APS) yöntemi aracılığıyla üretilen YSZ kaplamanın üzerine elektroforetik biriktirme (EPD) yöntemi ile nano-YSZ kaplanmış ve sürekli, yoğun mikro yapı özelliklerine sahip bir seramik katman elde edilmiştir. Üretilen nano kaplamaların üzerine belirli oranda kalsiyum, magnezyum, alüminyum ve silisyum tozları (CMAS) ve V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>-Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> tozları konularak 1050 °C’de kutu fırında 6 saat tutularak sırasıyla CMAS ve sıcaklık korozyonu testlerine tabi tutulmuştur.&nbsp; Korozyon sonrası ve öncesi kaplamaların mikro yapıları, yüzey pürüzlülükleri, porozitesi alan emisyonlu taramalı elektron mikroskobu (FESEM) ve taramalı elektrom mikroskobu (SEM) ile incelenmiştir. Enerji Dağılım Spektroskopisi (EDS) analizi sonuçlarına göre nano-YSZ kaplanmış numunelerde korozyon ürünlerinin bağ katmana difüzyonu önemli ölçüde düşürmüştür. X ışınları analizi (XRD) sonuçlarında, itriya (Y<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) ve V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> bileşiğinin reaksiyona girerek YVO<sub>4</sub> bileşiği oluşturduğu görülmüştür. Çalışma sonucunda yüzeydeki ve yüzey derinliklerinde çatlak ve porozite miktarları geleneksel termal bariyer kaplamalara kıyasla oldukça düşük çıkmıştır. Yoğun bir katman üretilmiştir, izotermal CMAS ve izotermal sıcak korozyon testleri sonucunda YSZ performansı iyileştirilmiştir.</p> Abdulkadir ÖZÇELİK, Ali AVCI, Muhammet KARABAŞ, Ayşegül AKDOĞAN EKER Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 25 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Assessment of Genetic variability among ethidium bromide-derived genotypes of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) at M7 generation <p>An induced mutation is a valuable tool for creating new genetic variability to complement existing germplasm and broaden crop genetic base. Thus, creating genetic diversity is needed for effective plant breeding programs. This study was aimed at evaluating the level of variation of phenotypic traits among ethidium bromide (EtBr)-derived genotypes of cowpea evaluated during the dry season of 2021-2022. Six cowpea genotypes obtained from the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko were used in the study. These were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in 3 replicates in the field. The traits measured were emergence percentage, number of leaves/plant, plant height, number of main branches/plant, number of peduncles/plant, peduncle length, pods/plant, pod length, seeds/pod, number of seeds/plant, 100-seed weight, and seed yield/plant. Upon statistical analysis, it was observed that G3 (IT98K-555-1) at a concentration of 0.5% for 16hrs was most suitable to broaden the genetic base of cowpea and can be selected for further breeding programs.</p> A. T Ajayi, O. S Osekita, T. F. Ojo, O. E. Omoniyi Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 25 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Developing a Low-Cost IoT based Remote Cardiovascular Patient Monitoring System in Pakistan <p>Several issues with conventional cardiovascular monitoring devices are intended to be addressed by a low-cost IoT-based remote cardiovascular patient monitoring system. These difficulties include the high cost of conventional devices, poor accessibility, and the requirement for repeated trips to the doctor. The system enables patients to remotely monitor their vital signs and receive real-time notifications in case of any irregularities, making it a more affordable and accessible option than traditional monitoring equipment. As a result, patients will require fewer trips to the hospital, increasing accessibility and convenience of healthcare. In case of any irregularities or trends that call for medical attention, the system also provides continuous monitoring, ensuring prompt care. The low-cost IoT-based remote cardiovascular patient monitoring system has the potential to revolutionize the way healthcare is provided, particularly in situations with limited resources. It does this by offering patients with cardiovascular problems constant, affordable, and accessible monitoring. Additionally, it can lessen the strain on medical facilities, freeing up resources and enabling healthcare professionals to concentrate on cases that are more urgent. This system is therefore necessary due to the drawbacks of conventional monitoring devices, and it can address the issues of limited accessibility and cost-effectiveness by giving patients a more practical and effective way to monitor their vital signs and receive prompt medical care.</p> Muhammad Awais, Reqad Ali, Jawaid Iqbal, Fahim Shahzad Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Thu, 25 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Modeling COVID-19 Binary Data in the Aspect of Neoplasms as a Potential Indicator of Cancer by Logit and Probit Regression Models <p>In this study, the effects of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from neoplasms and concomitant non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on total deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic until 21 July 2021 are examined globally for 179 countries. For this purpose, the explanatory variables are taken as DALYs as a measure of total burden of diseases in life lost years and lived with a disability years from neoplasm and NCDs. In this study, the total number of deaths caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has been made categorical with the help of the indicator variable and then taken as the response variable. Thus, in this study, the effects of neoplasms and concomitant NCDs on the COVID-19 pandemic are investigated by using binary logit and binary probit regression models in the family of generalized linear models (GLMs) as statistical methods. Specific to this study, the superiority of the probit model which is based on the assumption that the errors have a normal distribution in the statistical sense over the logit model which is based on the assumption that the errors have a logistic distribution is emphasized. As principle results and major conclusion from this study, neoplasms, cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, skin and subcutaneous diseases and other non-communicable diseases have been found to have statistically significant effects on deaths due to the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Neslihan İyit, Esra Sarı , Ferhat Sevim Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Experimental Investigation of Centrifugal Pump Characteristics <p>The pumps are divided into two main groups as positive displacement namely volumetric pumps and dynamic i.e. centrifugal pumps. Volumetric pumps are generally used to transport hydraulic oils, while centrifugal pumps are used to transport clean or dirty water. Pumps are the tools that are used to move liquid fluids from one place to another in many areas like as cars, industry, construction sites, agriculture, and homes. Therefore, determination of the hydraulic pump’s characteristics under various working conditions, including manometric head, overall efficiency, specific speed, and net positive suction head, is crucial for development, operational limitations, and durability. Experimental investigation is a more realistic method, although it is possible to determine the hydraulic pump characteristics by means of mathematical methods. Therefore, an experimental investigation is performed for the determination of the centrifugal pump characteristics in this study by using an experimental setup. The findings indicate that the hydraulic power given to the water and the electrical power used by the pump both increase up to a particular flow rate and then decline. Additionally, it is found that manometric head of the pump falls even as the overall flow losses rise as the flow rate rises. On the other hand, overall efficiency of the pump enhances at the specific flow rate and then it reduces with the increased flow rate while specific speed of the pump varies about linearly. Moreover, it is finally noticed that the tested centrifugal pump works in cavitations at all flow rates.</p> İsmet Sezer, Yiğit Serkan Şahin Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 BLDC Motor Controller Design For Light Cars Aiming Safety Driving <p>This study investigates the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) signal management techniques used in electric vehicles and how battery heat control is performed. It discusses how the application of the gas pedal, gear changes, and simultaneous pressing of gas-brake pedals prevent accidental movement of the vehicle in certain scenarios. Additionally, it evaluates the impact of battery management and heat control on the safety of the vehicle. The reviews and conclusions carried out have the potential to improve vehicle safety and battery life.</p> Göktürk Koçaş, Bayram Akdemir Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Fri, 26 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Short-Term Electricity Price Forecasting Using EEMD and GRU-NN <p>A vital necessity for the reliable operation of the power system as well as for the financial well-being of the consumers is an accurate forecast of the price of electricity. The price of electricity is highly volatile, nonlinear, and subject to seasonal fluctuations. The price series is also affected by electrical market uncertainty and demand, which is strongly reliant on weather and electricity usage time. This study presents a short-term electricity price forecasting method that follows the similar days approach comprising Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition technique. The suggested method utilizes a feature selection methodology that combines the Random Forest Regressor and the Gradient Boosting Regressor to determine which features are most important for the machine learning model. To forecast the electricity price, a Gated Recurrent Unit Neural Network (GRU-NN) is employed as the machine learning model. The GRU-NN has the capability of accurately capturing complicated temporal relationships in electricity price time series, which enables it to make correct predictions. To evaluate the validity of the proposed method, data from the PJM electricity market have been used. The simulation results demonstrate that the suggested method is superior to the existing technique, with significantly improved values achieved for both the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the root mean square error (RMSE).&nbsp;</p> Khalid Rashid Chughatta , Shaikh Saaqib Haroon Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Impact of the Size of Data on the Reliability of Short-Term Load Forecasting Using LSTM and GRU <p>Load forecasting has been an important aspect of power system operations and with the increase in integration of renewable energy resources in the main grid, the procedure is now more vital than ever. The methods developed to forecast the load of an area have also been improved with the use of artificial intelligence. This study proposes a forecasting training method using Gated Recurrent Units and compares it with the most widely used long-short term memory. The test systems are made of the historical load data from publicly available load data through PJM data miner 2 without the inclusion of weather parameters which reduces the training time of the models along with the reduction in data acquisition cost. The study also considers the impact of predicting future load without access to weather data.</p> Abdullah Ashraf, Shaikh Saaqib Haroon Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0300