CONDENSATION, DESALINATION, AND WATER RECYCLING TO ENCOUNTER WATER STRESS


Abstract views: 124 / PDF downloads: 76

Authors

  • Rafika HELAIMIA University of Soukahras

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.59287/icpis.883

Keywords:

Water Scarcity, Drivers, Condensation, Desalination, Water Recycling

Abstract

Water is a gift of life from Allah. In Al-Quran, it is stated “And We sent down from the sky water (rain) in (due) measure, and We gave it lodging in the earth, and verily, We are able to take it away.” (1). Though water is indispensable for life and livelihoods, it is becoming a world-pressing societal and geopolitical critical issue, knowing that 800 million people worldwide cannot afford primary access to potable water and that nearly 2.2 billion people lack access to a safe water supply. As a result, freshwater scarcity is now the world's second most pressing concern, after the prompt population increment issue. If the problem of freshwater scarcity persists, ‘the world will miss water-related SDGs by a wide margin’; more than 40% of the world's population will be living in ever-seriously water-stressed regions by 2035 (2); ecosystems will become weakened and will be unable to meet population freshwater supply ; and developing countries will be the most affected, with 80% of their illnesses caused by a lack of access to water as well as poor water quality. To tackle the increased water shortage, reasonable water management methods are required. This article proposes three efficient sustainable water techniques for producing fresh water and thus meeting water scarcity's massive demand, along with their benefits and drawbacks. They are Condensation, desalination, and water recycling.

Author Biography

Rafika HELAIMIA, University of Soukahras

Department of English, Algeria

References

(1) https://www.islamawakened.com/quran/23/18/, accessed on 1/11/2022.

(2) https://inweh.unu.edu/global-water-crisis-the-facts, accessed 1/12/2022.

(3) Falkenmark, M., J. Lundquist and C. Widstrand (1989), “Macro-scale Water Scarcity Requires Micro-scale Approaches: Aspects of Vulnerability in Semi-arid Development”, Natural Resources Forum, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 258–267.

(4) http://www.globalwaterforum.org, Understanding water scarcity: Definitions and measurements, M AY 7 , 2 012.

(5) Seckler, D. et al. (1998), World Water Demand and Supply, 1990 to 2025: Scenarios and Issues, International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Research Report 19, IWMI, Colombo, Sri Lanka

(6) Rijsberman, F.R. 2006. ‘Water scarcity: Fact or fiction?’ Agricultural Water Management Journal, 80: 5-22.

(7) Rijsberman, F.R. 2006. ‘Water scarcity: Fact or fiction?’ Agricultural Water Management Journal, 80: 5-22.

(8) Niruban Chakkaravarthy D.2019. Water Scarcity- Challenging the Future, International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Biotechnology ·

(9) Niruban Chakkaravarthy D.2019. Water Scarcity- Challenging the Future, International Journal of Agriculture Environment and Biotechnology ·

(10) Vasileios A., Nikolaos V., Andreas N. 2020. Water Supply and Water Scarcity, Water www.mdpi.com/journal

(11) Sivapalan, M.; Konar, M.; Srinivasan, V.; Chhatre, A.; Wutich, A.; Scott, C.A.; Wescoat, J.L.; Rodríguez-Iturbe, I. 2014.Socio-hydrology: Use-inspired water sustainability science for the Anthropocene. Earth’s Future .

(12) Orlove, B.; Caton, S.C. 2010. Water Sustainability: Anthropological Approaches and Prospects. Ann. Rev. Anthr.

(13) MacDonald, G.M. 2010. Water, climate change, and sustainability in the southwest. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.

(14) Feitelson E, Chenoweth J. 2002. Water poverty: towards a meaningful indicator. Water Policy 4:263–81

(15) Feitelson E, Chenoweth J. 2002. Water poverty: towards a meaningful indicator. Water Policy 4:263–81

(16) Galiani S, Gertler P, Schargrodsky E. 2005. Water for life: the impact of the privatization of water services on child mortality. J. Political Econ. 113:83–120

(17) Bakker KJ. 2003. A political ecology of water privatization. Stud. Political Econ. 70:35–58

(18) Rijsberman F. 2003. Can development of water resources reduce poverty? Water Policy 5:399–412

(19) Hanjra MA, Ferede T, Gutta DG. 2009. Reducing poverty in sub-Saharan Africa through investments in water and other priorities. Agric. Water Manag. 96:1062–70

(20) Schreiner B, van Koppen B. 2003. Policy and law for addressing poverty, race and gender in the water sector: the case of South Africa. Water Policy 5:489–501

(21) . Addae-Korankye A. 2014. Causes of poverty in Africa: a review of literature. Am. Int. J. Soc. Sci. 3:147–53

(22) Peter H. Gleick and Heather Cooley, 2021. Freshwater Scarcity, Annual Review of Environment and Resources.

(23) Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken DJ,Mach KJ,Mastrandrea MD, et al. 2014. Summary for policymakers. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution.

(24) Gosling SN, Arnell NW. 2016. A global assessment of the impact of climate change on water scarcity. Clim. Change 134:371–85.

(25) Gosling SN, Arnell NW. 2016. A global assessment of the impact of climate change on water scarcity. Clim. Change 134:371–85.

(26) https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/10/meet-the-people-pulling-water-out-of-thin-air/ accessed on 24 11 2022

(27) https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/10/meet-the-people-pulling-water-out-of-thin-air/ accessed on 24 11 2022

(28) Rubina B., Mohammad N.2013. Desalination: Conversion of Seawater to Freshwater, Desalination: Conversion of Seawater to Freshwater

(29) Muhammad S.,E Bhajan Lal, Khalik M.,Iqbal A.2019, Desalination of Seawater through Gas Hydrate Process: An Overview, Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55, Issue 1 (2019) 65-73.

(30) Kabeel, A. E., Mofreh H. Hamed, Z. M. Omara, and S. W. Sharshir.2013. "Water desalination using a humidificationdehumidification technique—a detailed review." Natural Resources 4, no. 03 (2013): 286.

(31) Bahar, Rubina, and Mohammad Nurul Alam Hawlader. 2013. "Desalination: Conversion of Seawater to Freshwater." Energy (kWh/m3 4) 9, no. 1.8 (2013): 1-8.

(32) Khawaji, Akili D., Ibrahim K. Kutubkhanah, and Jong-Mihn Wie. 2008."Advances in seawater desalination technologies." Desalination 221, no. 1-3 (2008): 47-69.

(33) Sporn, Philip. 1996. Fresh Water From Saline Waters: The political, social, engineering and economic aspects of desalination. Pergamon Press Oxford, London, Edinburgh, New York, Toronto

(34) Kołtuniewicz, ANDRZEJ B. 2006. "The history and state of art in membrane technologies." VIII Spring Membrane School “Membrane, membrane processes and their application”, Opole-Turawa 23 .

(35) Zhang, Xijing, David G. Cahill, Orlando Coronell, and Benito J. Mariñas. 2009. "Absorption of water in the active layer of reverse osmosis membranes." Journal of Membrane Science 331, no. 1-2(2009): 143-151.

(36) Idris, Alamin, Zakaria Man, Abdulhalim Maulud, and Muhammad Khan. 2017. "Effects of phase separation behavior on morphology and performance of polycarbonate membranes." Membranes 7, no. 2 (2017): 21.

(37) Khawaji, Akili D., Ibrahim K. Kutubkhanah, and Jong-Mihn Wie. 2008. "Advances in seawater desalination technologies." Desalination 221, no. 1-3 (2008): 47-69.

(38) Younos, Tamim, and Kimberly E. Tulou. 2005. "Overview of desalination techniques." Journal of Contemporary Water Research & Education 132, no. 1 (2005): 3-10.

(39) El-Dessouky, Hisham T., and Hisham Mohamed Ettouney. 2002. Fundamentals of salt water desalination. Elsevier, 2002.

(40) Ruiz, Lara, and Jorge Horacio Juan.2006. "An advanced vapor-compression desalination system." PhD diss., Texas A&M University

(41) Sangwai, Jitendra S., Rachit S. Patel, Prathyusha Mekala, Deepjyoti Mech, and Marc Busch. 2013. "Desalination of Seawater using Gas Hydrate Technology Current Status and Future Direction." In XVIII Conference on Hydraulics, pp. 4-6. 2013.

(42) Cha, Jong-Ho, and Yongkoo Seol. 2013. "Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests." ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 1, no. 10 (2013): 1218-1224.

(43) Aliev, A. M., R. Yu Yusifov, A. R. Kuliev, and Yu G. Yusifov. 2008. "Method of gas hydrate formation for evaluation of water desalination." Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 81, no. 4 (2008): 588-591.

(44) Saidur, R., E. T. Elcevvadi, S. Mekhilef, A. Safari, and H. A. Mohammed. 2011. "An overview of different distillation methods for small scale applications." Renewable and sustainable energy reviews 15, no. 9 (2011): 4756-4764.

(45) Nafey, A. Safwat, M. A. Mohamad, and M. A. Sharaf. 2006."Theoretical and experimental study of a small unit for water desalination using solar energy and flashing process." In Proceedings of the Tenth International Water Technology Conference. 2006.

(46) Max, Michael D. "Hydrate desalination or water purification. 2004." U.S. Patent 6,767,471, issued July 27, 2004.

(47) Koh, Carolyn A., E. Dendy Sloan, Amadeu K. Sum, and David T. Wu.2011. "Fundamentals and applications of gas hydrates." Annual review of chemical and biomolecular engineering 2 (2011): 237-257.

(48) Park, Kyeong-nam, Sang Yeon Hong, Jin Woo Lee, Kyung Chan Kang, Young Cheol Lee, Myung-Gyu Ha, and Ju Dong Lee. "A new apparatus for seawater desalination by gas hydrate process and removal characteristics of dissolved minerals (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, B3+)." Desalination 274, no. 1-3 (2011): 91-96

(49) Javanmardi, J., and M. Moshfeghian. 2003. "Energy consumption and economic evaluation of water desalination by hydrate phenomenon." Applied thermal engineering 23, no. 7 (2003): 845-857.

(50) Sirisha Nallakukkala , Zamzila Kassim , Nurzatil Aqmar Othman , Bhajan Lal. 2020. Advancement in Gas Hydrate Water Based Produced Water Desalination: An Overview, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Separation Technology 2020 (ICoST 2020).

(51) Irma T., María D., Valeria Forés & Alejandro P. 2012. Life cycle assessment of construction and demolition waste management systems: a Spanish case study,

The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment volume 17, pages232–241.

(52) National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning. “Wastewater Treatment” Course Notes. 2010. www.nptel. iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT accessed 01-09-2010.

(53) He J, Chen JP. A comprehensive review on biosorption of heavy metals by algal biomass: Materials, performances, chemistry and modeling simulation tools, Bioresour. Technol. 2014; 160:67−78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. biortech.2014.01.068. PMid:24630371.

(54) Xu G, Yang X, Spinosa L. 2014. Development of sludge-based adsorbents: preparation, characterization, utilization and its feasibility assessment, J. Environ. Manag. 2015; 151:221−32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.08.001. PMid: 25577702.

(55) Peace Amoatey and Richard Bani. Chapter 20: Wastewater Management, Waste Water - Evaluation and Management, Intech. Open. 2011. https://doi.org/10.5772/2051. DOI: 10.5772/2051.

(56) Marcos R Vianna, Gilberto CB de Melo, Márcio RV Neto.2012. Wastewater treatment in trickling filters using LUFFA cyllindrica as biofilm supporting medium, Journal of Urban and Environmental Engineering. 2012; 6(2):57−66. https:// doi.org/10.4090/juee.2012.v6n2.057066. DOI: 10.4090/ juee.2012.v6n2.057066

(57) Alaa Fahad, Radin Maya Saphira Mohamed, Bakar Radhi, Mohammed Al-Sahari.2019. Wastewater and its Treatment Techniques: An Ample Review, n Indian Journal of Science and Technology.

(58) Matthew Verbyla, Marcos von Sperling, Ynoussa Maiga.2017. Waste Stabilization Ponds, http://www.waterpathogens.org/book/waste-stabilization-ponds Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI, UNESCO.

(59) Advantages and DisadvantagesofWSPSytemshttps://www.thewatertreatments.com/wastewater-sewage-treatment/advantages-disadvantages-wsp-systems,accessed 14/01/2023.

(60) Umesh Ghimire, Hariteja Nandimandalam, Martinez-Guerra , Veera Gnaneswar Gude.2019. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment, Water Environment Research.

(61) Wu, S., Lyu, T., Zhao, Y., Vymazal, J., Arias, C., & Brix, H. (2018). Rethinking intensification of constructed wetlands as a green eco-technology for

(62) wastewater treatment. Environmental Science & Technology, 52(4), 1693–1694

(63) Larry W. Moore.2020. WMU Wastewater Treatment Facility Treatment and Hydraulic Expansion Study,West Mmephis Utility Commision,City of West Memphis, Arkensas.The Oxidation Ditches, https://water.mecc.edu, , accessed 14/10/2023.

(64)Supplementary Methods Defining water scarcity, https://pure.iiasa.ac.at/id/eprint/14666/7/ncomms15697-s1.pdf, accessed 14/01/2023

Downloads

Published

2023-06-20

How to Cite

HELAIMIA, R. (2023). CONDENSATION, DESALINATION, AND WATER RECYCLING TO ENCOUNTER WATER STRESS. International Conference on Pioneer and Innovative Studies, 1, 515–523. https://doi.org/10.59287/icpis.883

Conference Proceedings Volume

Section

Conference Papers