VERNONIA AMYGDALINA ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT PROTECTS AGAINST TRAMADOL-INDUCED ORGAN DAMAGES THROUGH INHIBITION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS
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Keywords:Vernonia Amygdalina Extract, Tramadol, Wistar Rat
Vernonia amygdalinaas has been found to lower blood pressure, reduces body weight, and improve fertility. However, its effects on oxidative stress imposed by opiods has yet to be determined. This research therefore aims to investigate the attenuating potentials of Vernonia Amygdalina ethanol leaf extract on oxidative stress biomarkers, following the administration of graded doses of tramadol. Fresh Vernonia amygdalina leaf were extracted using ethanol and the extract were stored for use in the experiment. Thirty (30) mature male Wistar rats weighing were used for study. The animals were acclimated for seven days, divided into six groups of five animals in each group. Group 1 received 0.5 ml of normal saline. Group 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were given tramadol 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for 12 weeks, however, group 6 was withdrawn after 6 weeks of tramadol administration. Group 3, 4, 5 and 6 also received ethanol extract of Vernonia amgydalina at a dose of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg body weight respectively for 12 weeks. At the end of the 12 weeks treatment period, the rats were euthanized by cervical dislocation; blood samples were collected and centrifuged to obtain serum for biochemical analysis. Brain, Liver, Pancreas, kidney and testes were excised for biochemical evaluation. The data obtained were analyzed by comparing the values for individual controls for different treatment groups and the results were expressed as mean values ± standard mean error (mean ± SEM). Using the student's t-test, ANOVA variance analysis, and the results were considered significant at P-values of less than 0.01 (P<0.01) using SPSS version 23 software, significant differences between control and experimental groups were measured. Results show a significant increase in the activities of non-enzymic antioxidants (Vitamins C, E, and K), carotenoids antioxidants (beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and zeaxanthin), thiol antioxidants (Glutathiones, Glutathione peroxidase, and Lipoic acid), oxidoreductase antioxidant (Catalase), metaloenzyme in all tissues of rats given tramadol and treated with Vernonia Amygdalina ethanol leaf extract when compared with to the group 2 rats that received only tramadol. Compared to the other groups, group 4 rats likewise show a more pronounced improvement. When compared to group 2 rats that got only tramadol, there was a significant decrease in Malondialdehyde activities in all tissues of rats given tramadol and treated with Vernonia Amygdalina ethanol leaf extract. Vernonia amygdalina was found to be efficacious in reducing ROS-induced tramadol-induced chronic toxicity and organ impairment in Wistar rats. It is suggested that the bioactive chemicals in Vernonia amygdalina that function as an adjunct in the chronic therapy of organ harm caused by opioid prescription addiction be identified, isolated, and employed again to validate the findings of this study.
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