Development of Composite Materials from Phenol Formaldehyde Resins and Evaluation of Their Uses
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Keywords:Phenol Formaldehyde, Composite Material, Thermal Stability, Mechanical Properties, Biomass Sources
In this study, the properties, application areas, and use of phenol formaldehyde resins in composite materials have been investigated. The usage areas of phenol formaldehyde resins are getting more and more widespread. Composite materials are being developed by using them together with fibrous biomass sources. Besides, industrial wastes or inorganic fillers are also supplemented with phenol formaldehyde resin. While phenol formaldehyde-based composites are produced, wastes causing environmental pollution are evaluated and some properties of the composites are improved according to the purpose of use. Generally, organic fiber biomass wastes improve the mechanical properties of phenol formaldehyde-based composites. Inorganic industrial wastes also improve both the thermal stability and non-flammability of composites. Reinforcing materials used as fillers interact physically with phenol formaldehyde-based composites. However, biomass sources can also form chemical bonds with some modification processes. To reduce the use of petrochemical components in phenol formaldehyde-based composites, bioraw material syntheses have been carried out. Thus, new generation composites are being developed that are both environmentally friendly and have a low carbon footprint. Moreover, the reinforcement of hard-to-recycle plastics into phenol formaldehyde increases the workability of the composites.
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