A Review of AI-Based Approaches against Wormhole and Blackhole Attacks in AODV Protocol

Abstract views: 17 / PDF downloads: 14


  • Zainab Bashar Ibrahim University of Mosul
  • Mayada Faris Ghanim University of Mosul


MANET, AODV, AI, Blackhole, Wormhole


A Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) is a wirelessly linked network of one or more devices that
can configure itself. In a MANET, nodes can exchange data with one another directly or indirectly (via
intermediary nodes). Because of the lack of central administration, open media, and several other reasons
that make this type of network more vulnerable to security assaults, some researchers are utilizing artificial
intelligence approaches in MANET routing to offer security. Several network layer attacks, including the
black hole, and wormhole assaults, are covered in this essay. The detection of collaborative network assaults
is examined, and frequent multiple network attacks are noted. A few of these assaults' symptoms will be
emphasized. A network might exhibit a number of signs and observations that indicate the existence of an
attack. The review calls for continued research to refine and deploy AI-based security mechanisms in realworld scenarios, addressing scalability concerns and advancing the vision of self-defending MANETs and
wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The review serves as a resource for researchers, practitioners, and
policymakers interested in fortifying the security of dynamic wireless networks.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Zainab Bashar Ibrahim, University of Mosul

Computer Engineering Department/Network Security, Iraq

Mayada Faris Ghanim, University of Mosul

Computer Engineering Department/Network Security, Iraq


M. M. K. K. Amarjeet Singh, Tripatdeep Singh, “Performance improvement in aodv routing protocol with artificial intelligence” Research gate, p. 5, 2016.

S. G. VIVEK MANKOTIA, RAMESH KUMAR SUNKARIA, “Dt- aodv: a dynamic threshold protocol against black-hole attack in manet,” Indian Academy of Sciences, p. 14, 2023.

N. V. K. RAJYALAXMI, M. ANUSHA, “Survey of ai techniques in manet routing,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY, p. 6, 2022.

S. Z. D. S. Fasunlade, Olufemi, “Comprehensive review of collaborative network attacks in manet,” pp. 1542–1545, 2020.

M. O. N. D. A. T. Hammamouche, Assia, “Lightweight reputation-based approach against simple and cooperative black-hole attacks for manet,” Journal of information security and applications, pp. 12–20, 2018.

A. H. A.-B. H. Z. Saif Al-Sultan, Moath M. Al-Doori, “A comprehensive survey on vehicular ad hoc network,” p. 37, 2014.

C. B. c. A. L. Hamssa Hasrouny a b, Abed Ellatif Samhat b, “Misbehavior detection and efficient revocation within vanet,” p. 46, 2019.

M. K. R. Hamideh Fatemidokht, “F-ant: An effective routing protocol for ant colony optimization based on fuzzy logic in vehicular ad hoc

networks,” p. 29, 2018.

A. M. T. V. Y. A. K. R. U. K. M. R. Vimal Kumar, Mahima Shanker, “Prevention of blackhole attack in manet using certificateless signature scheme,” 2021.

M. v. S. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Distributed Systems: Principles and Paradigms, 2nd ed., 2007.

A. J. A. K. Namit Gupta1, Kunwar Singh Vaisla and R. Kumar, “Performance evaluation of aodv routing protocol in vanet with ns2,” International Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Artificial

Intelligence, p. 5, 2017.

Y. H. Jazyah, “Enhancing the performance of wireless routing protocols of manet using ai,” Journal of Computer Science, p. 8, 2021.

A. J. A. K. R. K. Namit Gupta, Kunwar Singh Vaisla, “Performance analysis of aodv routing for wireless sensor network in fpga hardware,” p. 13, 2021.

M. S. H. K. A. F. Q. a. A. S. A. Md Ibrahim Talukdar, Rosilah Hassan, “Performance improvements of aodv by black hole attack detection using ids and digital signature,” Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, p. 13, 2021.

S. K. K. Raj Kamal Kapur, “Analysis of attacks on routing protocols in manets,” p. 5, 2015.

K. M. Nidhi Purohit, Richa Sinha, “Simulation study of black hole and jellyfish attack on manet using ns3,” p. 14, 2011.

M. R. Manmohan Sharma, “Security attacks in manet – a comprehensive

study,” p. 6, 2020.

N. M. O. H. M. Ibrahim and E. K. William, “Detection and removal of gray, black and cooperative black hole attacks in aodv technique,” p. 6, 2015.

N. A. O. M. Olanrewaju, A. A. Abdulwasiu, “Enhanced on-demand distance vector routing protocol to prevent blackhole attack in manet,” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING


T. Kaur, “Mitigation of blackhole attacks and wormhole attacks in wireless sensor networks using aodv protocol,” Conf. Smart Energy Grid Eng, 2018.

D. G. R. C. P. Sandeep Kumar, Monika Goyal, “Routing protocols and security issues in manet,” International Conference on Infocom Technologies and Unmanned Systems, p. 7, 2017.

P. V. T Divya Sai Keerthi, “Confirmation of wormhole attack in manets using honeypot,” p. 30, 2018.

S. P. Jegan Govindasamy, “A comparative study of reactive, proactive and hybrid routing protocol in wireless sensor network under wormhole attack,” Electrical Systems and Information Technology, p. 10, 2018.

D. S. Juhi Biswas, Ajay Gupta, “Wadp: A wormhole attack detection and prevention technique in manet using modified aodv routing protocol,” p. 6, 2014.

S. J. R. Fotohi, “Defending against wormhole attack in manet using an artificial immune system,” New Review of Information Networking, p. 21, 2016.

A. K. M.S, “An adaptive technique for wormhole attack detection in manet using quantized ad-hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing protocol,” SPIE, p. 23, 2023.

A. R. Y. Khalil I. Ghathwan and R. Budiarto, “Eaodv: A*-based enhancement ad-hoc on demand vector protocol to prevent black hole

attacks,” p. 7, 2013.

S. N. B. N. A. M. M. H. Fatima-tuz Zahra, NZ Jhanjhi, “Proposing a hybrid rpl protocol for rank and wormhole attack mitigation using machine learning,” International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS), p. 6, 2020.

S. A. H. S. Masoud Abdan, “Machine learning methods for intrusive detection of wormhole attack in mobile ad hoc network (manet)”, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, p. 12, 2021.

M. K. Alaa Althalji, Souheil Khawatmi, “Improving the security of aodv protocol using v-detector algorithm,” p. 8, 2019.

R. A. S. S. D. I. A. Zulfiqar Ali Zardari, Kamran Ali Memon, “A lightweight technique for detection and prevention of wormhole attacks in manet,” p. 6, 2021.

D. R. P. Rubi, “A wormhole attack detection in mobile ad-hoc network using ga and svm”, p. 7, 2020.

U. S. Mukul Shukla, Brijendra Kumar Joshi, “Mitigate wormhole attack and blackhole attack using elliptic curve cryptography in manet”, Wireless Personal Communications, p. 24, 2021.

M. Al-Shabi, “Performance ameliorations of aodv by black hole attack detection utilizing idsaodv as well as reverse aodv”, International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security, p. 12, 2022.

S. V. N. K. M. W. J. S. M. F. I. Pooja Rani, Kavita, “Robust and secure data transmission using artificial intelligence techniques in ad-

hoc networks,” Sensors, p. 22, 2022.

S. V. Shaik Shafi, S Mounika, “Machine learning and trust based aodv routing protocol to mitigate flooding and blackhole attacks in manet", p. 10, 2023.

D. R. S. S. Ashutosh Vashist, “A techniques for security in manet: A combined approach of neural network and aodv for malicious attack detection and prevention,” Industrial Engineering Journal, p. 13, 2023.

N. Q. Xuetao Jia, Donggui Huang, “Ai-enhanced security demand and routing management for manets with optical technologies,” p. 19, 2023.

S. T. Shahjahan Ali, Parma Nand., “Detection of wormhole attack in vehicular ad-hoc network over real map using machine learning approach with preventive scheme”, p. 20, 2022.

Z. A. A. ALMAMOORI, “Embedding intrusion detection in distributed computing artificial intelligence-based routing in ad hoc networks,” p. 108, 2023.

V. K. N. G. S. P. K Srinivas, V Harsha Shastri and P. R. Kumar, “Discernment and diminution of black hole attack in mobile ad-hoc network using artificial intelligence,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, p. 18, 2021.

B. B. G. C.-H. H. Hamideh Fatemidokht, Marjan Kuchaki Rafsanjan, “Efficient and secure routing protocol based on artificial intelligence algorithms with uav-assisted for vehicular ad hoc networks in intelligent transportation systems,” p. 22, 2021.

A. J. J. Arthi and B. S. Brett Beno, “Fuzzy based inference system with ensemble classification based intrusion detection system in manet”, Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, pp. 1–8, 2023.

K. O. Murray, “Fuzzy based intrusion detection system in manet”, Measurement: Sensors, p. 26, 2023.

S. Maheswari and R. Vijayabhasker, “Fuzzy reputation-based trust mechanism for mitigating attacks in manet,” Intelligent Automation Soft Computing, p. 35, 2023.

K. E. S. S. K Bala, J Paramesh, “An intrusion detection system for manet to detect gray hole attack using fuzzy logic system,” IEEE, 2023.

A. S. S. K. G.-S. H. A. A. S. Subhankar Ghosh, Anuradha Banerjee, “Efficient selfish node detection using svm in iot-manet environment”, WILEY, p. 25, 2022.

S. C. Atin Roy, “Support vector machine in structural reliability analysis: A review,” ELSEVIER, 2023.

M. A. K. Mohamad T Sultan, Hesham El Sayed, “An intrusion detection mechanism for manets based on deep learning artificial neural networks (anns),” International Journal of Computer Networks Communications

(IJCNC), p. 15, 2023.

M. O. Wafa Bouassaba, Abdellah Nabou, “Review on machine learning based intrusion detection for manet security,” IEEE, 2022.

T. R. S. U. N. Moirangthem Marjit Singh, Nishigandha Dutta, “A technique to detect wormhole attack in wireless sensor network using artificial neural network,” p. 10, 2021.

A. K. M. S. M. Ezhilarasi, L. Gnanaprasanambikai, “A novel implementation of routing attack detection scheme by using fuzzy and feed-forward neural networks,” p. 9, 2023, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00500-022-06915-1.

E. G. J. Y. H. R. . V. S. K. Lakshmi Narayanan, R. Santhana Krishnan, “Machine learning based detection and a novel ec-brtt algorithm based prevention of dos attacks in wireless sensor networks,” p. 24, 2022.

M. D. R. Sana AKOURMIS, Youssef Fakhri, “Protecting aodv protocol from black hole attack in wsn,” p. 21, 2023.

K. M. K. C. K. N. M. S. A. S. Pratik Gite, Kuldeep Chouhan, “ML based intrusion detection scheme for various types of attacks in a wsn using c4.5 and cart classifiers,” p. 7, 2023.

Q. L. K. X. S. L. L. C. Xiao Luo, Yanru Chen; Miao Li, “Crednd: A novel secure neighbor discovery algorithm for wormhole attack,” 2020.

A. K. K. Amit Kumar Roy, “Rtt based wormhole detection for wireless mesh networks,” p. 7, 2020.




How to Cite

Ibrahim, Z. B., & Ghanim, M. F. (2024). A Review of AI-Based Approaches against Wormhole and Blackhole Attacks in AODV Protocol. International Journal of Advanced Natural Sciences and Engineering Researches, 8(5), 60–75. Retrieved from https://as-proceeding.com/index.php/ijanser/article/view/1885

Conference Proceedings Volume